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earned value

An accounting method for project controls whereby partial credit is given to work completed, assessed based on an agreed-up schedule of values (earnings plan), with payments issued correspondingly.

This method is not lean: for example, it does not recognize the value of sequencing of work, creating specific handoffs, and shaping the work flow.

Reference: Kim, Y.-W. and Ballard, G. (2000). “Is the Earned-Value Method an Enemy of Workflow?” Proc. 8th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC-8), Brighton, UK, 17-19 July.

Engineered To Order (ETO)

Product for which design and engineering are done in response to a specific request (order) from a customer, and that is then made to that design specification.

Illustration → see Assembled To Order
→ related to ATO, FTO, MTO, MTS, and CODP


→ see Engineered To Order

even flow production

Production with a steady throughput.

evenness of flow

Production achieved based on load leveling (heijunka).

Expected Cost (EC) [TVD]

In Target Value Design, an expression of the team’s best estimate at the conclusion of the validation phase of TVD of what current best practice would produce as a price for the facility reflected in the accompanying basis of design documents. Typically, the Expected Cost will also be supported by benchmarking or other market data so it is calibrated in light of the market context.

(to) expedite

Effort to shorten the duration of an activity from what is typical or originally offered.

When initiated as a result of a delay or lack of confidence that the original duration will be met, expediting means ensuring the delivery of services or goods according to the agreed-upon terms and conditions, meeting requirements of timeliness, quality, quantity, packaging, etc. It is a waste because the supplier is not trusted to have made a reliable promise to their customer.

(to) explode [LPS]

To express a task in greater detail, typically by producing a flow diagram of the process of which the output is the task being exploded, then determining the sub-tasks needed to make the task ready for assignment and execution when scheduled. Sub-tasks are categorized in terms of the activity definition model, resulting in actions to clarify or specify directives and requests for prerequisites from suppliers, and reservation of needed resources.