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→ see International Group for Lean Construction

importance of an advantage [CBA]

[unit of importance of advantage]

In Choosing by Advantages, importance refers to stakeholders’ assessment of the value of an advantage to meeting their requirements (e.g., the goals of a project) expressed by means of a criterion.


The combination of directives, prerequisites, and resources needed to execute a process.

→ see Activity Definition Model (ADM)


Assessing some feature of a process or completed work against a standard. That standard, rooted in someone’s purpose of need, is expressed in technical terms that can be observed and measured. Due to the risk that there is a break in value flow-down, even when you are in complete conformance with requirements, you may not contribute to value because your specifications are wrong.

Inspection may be done against purpose or against requirements.

→ see self-inspection and successive inspection

Instant CBA Method [CBA]

Application of the Choosing By Advantages method whereby a situation is very quickly assessed and the alternative with the greatest total importance of advantages is chosen.

Integrated Form of Agreement (IFOA)

A type of relational contract used in the delivery of capital projects developed by Lichtig (2006), that spells out commercial terms for project delivery, promotes the use of lean principles and methods, and is signed by multiple parties agreeing to collaborate on project delivery.

First tested on Sutter projects, the IFOA informed the development of Consensusdocs CD300 (

Reference: Lichtig, W.A. (2006). “The Integrated Agreement for Lean Project Delivery.” Construction Lawyer, American Bar Association, 26 (3), Summer.

Integrated Project Delivery™ (IPD)

A delivery system that seeks to align all project team members’ interests, objectives, and practices (even in a single business), through conceiving the Organization, Operating System and Commercial Terms governing the project. Team members would include the architect, key technical consultants as well as a general contractor and key subcontractors. It creates an organization able to apply the principles and practices of the Lean Project Delivery System (e.g., see

IPD is a registered business mark by Lean Construction Institute with the US PTO

IPD as used here is distinct from AIA’s use in AIA (2007). “Integrated Project Delivery: A Guide.” American Institute of Architects, available at

G_IPD color

Source: visited 19 NOV 2013


→ see dependence

International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC)

“The International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC), founded in 1993, makes up a network of professionals and researchers in architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) who feel that the practice, education, and research of AEC have to be radically renewed in order to respond to the challenges ahead.

Our goal is to better meet customer demands and dramatically improve the AEC process as well as product. To achieve this, we are developing new principles and methods for product development and production management specifically tailored to the AEC industry, but akin to those defining lean production that proved to be so successful in manufacturing.

The distinguishing trait of this Group is its emphasis on theory. We view that the lack of an explicit theory of construction has been a major bottleneck for the progress in the AEC field. Conversely, we assume that the clarification of the theoretical foundation of construction, along with principles and methods emanating from the new foundation, would be the most effective means for the renewal of the AEC industry.”

The main activity of the IGLC is to organize annual conferences so as to bring the community together, promote sharing, and advance learning. You can find papers from past conferences, information on the upcoming conference, and more information at

Reference: visited 1 MAR 2015


Stock on hand (e.g., materials or information), often divided between:

  1. Raw materials inventory
  2. Work-in-process (WIP) inventory, and
  3. Finished goods inventory

One of 7 wastes defined by Ohno (1988) referring to products or materials awaiting further processing before being ready for release as a finished good to a customer.


Image source: Iris D. Tommelein 2015

Ishikawa Diagram, fishbone diagram

→ see cause-and-effect diagram


Repetition of a process that already has been performed once.

  1. Negative iteration refers to rework without value being added.
  2. Positive iteration refers to, e.g., learning taking place.