Publications

coordinating specialists

lookahead planning

TVD tech reports

2012 Dan Conwell’s presentation

 

Contents

Refereed Journal Papers

  1. Thanopoulos, Theo, Tommelein, Iris D., and Ballard, Glenn (2015). “Framework for Design Decision Making by ‘Lean’ Integrated Project Delivery Teams.” ASCE, Journal of Management in Engineering, submitted in July 2013 and again in September 2015, in review.

    ABSTRACT: Projects delivered by integrated teams (i.e., teams including owners, designers, contractors, and other trade partners) offer team participants the opportunity to collaboratively make design decisions in order to optimize the project as a whole. Such teams have to manage ever-increasing project complexity, stemming in part from increased use of building automation and rising performance expectations of buildings, driven by the desire to achieve sustainability values. In order to support team-based decision making, we here present a framework and design process methodology founded on Lean Construction principles (such as involving stakeholders early, establishing transparency, collaborating by sharing incomplete information often, considering sets of alternatives, making decisions based on facts, and deferring decision making to the Last Responsible Moment to support the team in making the best-informed decisions). Specifically, we describe the combination of Target Value Design (TVD) with Set-Based Design (SBD) and Choosing By Advantages (CBA). We use data excerpted from a case study to illustrate their use. Rigor in design process methodology, and training to effectively implement it, are needed by those who will be involved in Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) teams so that they will be able to develop shared understanding and collaboratively drive the delivery process toward achieving a shared goal. The framework and the supporting methodologies we present here offer a systematic approach to address a process challenge for integrated teams, for which few–if any–alternatives have been articulated and formalized to date.
  2. Parrish, K., Wong, J.-M., and Tommelein, I.D. (2015). “Set-based Design of Concrete Reinforcing Steel with BIM Support.” Automation in Construction, submitted for review on 14 May 2015.

    ABSTRACT: Today’s methods used when designing, detailing, and
    fabricating reinforcing steel (rebar) for concrete structures tend to be point-based. We herein present an alternative method, one that is set-based. Set-based design enables the exploration of feasible solutions for longer in the design process than is otherwise affordable using point-based design, thereby allowing for input from multiple project delivery
    team members simultaneously, from early design onwards. In support of the set-based method for rebar design, we deliver proof-of-concept by showing how the so-named SetPlan computer-based tool leverages Building Information Modeling software (in this case, Tekla Structures) to display design information in a dashboard format, so that the project
    delivery team can select a design solution that is satisfactory for all, though possibly not optimal for anyone. This paper also explores the need for and feasibility of implementing tools like SetPlan in practice.
  3. Arroyo, P., Tommelein, I.D., Ballard, G., and Rumsey, P. (2015).
    “Choosing By Advantages: A Case Study for Selecting an HVAC System for a Net Zero Energy Museum.” Energy and Buildings, Ms. Ref. No.: ENB-D-15-00844R1, in press as of 10 OCT 2015.

    ABSTRACT: Choosing a building system is not an easy task, especially
    when designers are concerned about the social and environmental impacts of their choices, as in the case of a Net Zero Energy (NZE) building. In addition, economic constraints are commonly misunderstood so that all too often decisions are based on what is cheaper upfront and do not take the life-cycle cost into account. Moreover, the interaction with increasing numbers of stakeholders makes decision-making even more complex. While decisions can be
    supported by decision-making methods, in practice many are made without a formal method or discussion, which often generates conflict and waste in the design process. Few designers know how to incorporate social, environmental and economical factors when making a decision. This research fills the literature gap and provides practical advice
    for practitioners by demonstrating the application of a method called Choosing By Advantages (CBA) in order to create transparent and collaborative environments in which to make decisions. This paper presents a detailed case study of choosing an HVAC system for a NZE building in California. It provides evidence that CBA supports the choosing problem by integrating multiple perspectives, creating transparency, separating “value” from cost, and clearly documenting
    the decision rationale.
  4. Arroyo, P., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2015).
    “Selecting Globally Sustainable Materials: A Case Study Using Choosing By Advantages.” ASCE, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, submitted for review in January 2015, accepted final COENG-4029R1 on 10 June 2015.

    ABSTRACT: Design teams must make hundreds of decisions in building
    design, including choosing materials. Lately, they have become more concerned about the social and environmental impacts
    of their choices, in addition to the economic constraints. These concerns, in addition to the increasing offerings of
    construction materials and products and the engagement of more stakeholders, make decisions more complex. As decision
    complexity increases, so does the need to systematically use sound decision- making methods. However, many decisions in
    practice are made without a formal method or discussion, thereby often generating conflict and waste in the design
    process. Further, even if practitioners are looking for better decision making methods, the literature does not provide
    enough support for them to select the best method for this context. This research fills the literature gap and provides
    a systematic approach as well as practical advice for decision makers by demonstrating the application of a method,
    called Choosing By Advantages (CBA). CBA creates transparent and collaborative environments in which to make decisions.
    To illustrate the use of CBA, this paper provides a detailed example of choosing materials, in this case ceiling tiles,
    in a commercial interior design project considering global supply chain issues. This paper provides evidence that CBA
    (1) supports the material choice problem, (2) integrates multiple perspectives, (3) keeps decisions linked to the
    context, (4) creates transparency, (5) builds a collaborative environment, (6) separates “value” and cost, and (7)
    provides a clear manner of documenting rational decisions. CBA is a method worth adding to the tool box of design teams
    determined to select globally sustainable materials.
  5. Steinhaeusser, Tobias, Elezi, Fatos, Tommelein, Iris D., and Lindemann, Udo (2015).

    Management Cybernetics as a Theoretical Basis for Lean Construction Thinking.

    Lean Construction Journal, pp. 1-14.

    ABSTRACT:

    Question: Management
    cybernetics claims that any successful organization responds to its laws. As there are numerous
    successful enterprises that use lean thinking as a management philosophy, including increasing
    numbers of construction companies, does this claim hold and if so, do these laws offer the
    opportunity to sharpen understanding of lean construction practices?

    Purpose: The purpose of
    this paper is to explore the use of management cybernetics—specifically Stafford Beer’s Viable
    Systems Model—as a theoretical basis for lean construction thinking. Research Method: Review,
    analyze, and compare literature on management cybernetics and lean construction. Develop an example
    to illustrate such use.

    Findings: Through a theoretical approach of describing lean thinking
    rules from the perspective of management cybernetics, we were able to show that following this
    argumentation, the lean construction idea of Built-in Quality (BiQ) fulfills all requirements of a
    viable system in management cybernetics.

    Limitations: Only a small selection of rules is analyzed in this paper.

    Implications: Management cybernetics can help sharpen understanding
    when implementing lean thinking in an industrial context. It may also help identify new concepts
    that can be incorporated into lean thinking. Conversely, understanding lean thinking principles from
    the perspective of management cybernetics may also help to identify problems where the
    implementation of lean thinking does not live up to the desired results. However, further
    exploration of these potential implications is required.

    Value for authors: Introduce management cybernetics to the lean construction community in order to support lean systems thinking and spur interest in using the Viable Systems Model when diagnosing lean practices.

    Keywords: Lean Construction, Lean Thinking, Theory, Built-in Quality (BiQ), Management
    Cybernetics, Viable System Model (ViSM).

  6. Tommelein, I.D. (2015).

    Journey toward Lean Construction: Pursuing a Paradigm Shift in the AEC Industry.

    ASCE, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management,
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000926.

    ABSTRACT:
    This paper presents a personal historic view on lean construction, referring to the application of lean thinking to the delivery of capital projects in the architecture-engineering-construction (AEC) industry. Lean construction has caused a paradigm shift: it offers a new way of thinking to those involved in designing and managing AEC projects. The systems thinking that lean promotes began to develop in the AEC industry 20-some years ago and was spurred by the recognition that the then-current thinking about the delivery of projects was incongruent in many ways. The writer first offers conceptual underpinnings to frame this new way of thinking, and then describes her journey of discovery of incongruences in construction project management theory and practice. Along the way, the writer offers several partial yet complementary definitions of lean construction while giving examples and illustrations of the underlying lean thinking. The writer’s thesis is that lean thinking helps eliminate much self-inflicted, unwanted complexity from systems, so that people can accomplish more using simpler systems. Readers may not necessarily agree with this thesis, but are challenged to at least consider that lean thinking offers a new paradigm for the AEC industry, and that it is worth pursuing.
  7. Hamzeh, Farook R., Saab, Issa, Tommelein, Iris D., and Ballard, Glenn (2014). “Understanding the Role of ‘Tasks Anticipated’ in Lookahead Planning through Simulation.” Automation in Construction, 49 (2015) 18-26, DOI: 10.1016/j.autcon.2014.09.005

    ABSTRACT: Construction planning takes place at many levels. This paper pertains to the level called lookahead planning, during which planners make their plan more realistic as construction tasks approach execution. To improve the quality of lookahead planning, the construction industry has benefited from implementing the Last Planner(R) System (LPS) that emphasizes creating reliable workflow. Successful lookahead planning relies on task anticipation by breaking down tasks to the level of operations, designing those operations, and making tasks ready by identifying and removing their constraints so that tasks can become executable assignments. This paper presents
    a study, using computer simulation, of the relationship between improving Task Anticipated (TA) in lookahead planning and overall project duration. The results indicate that increasing TA can have a positive influence on reducing project duration. The authors recommend that industry practitioners use the TA metric to gauge their planning performance and then to improve on it.
  8. Arroyo, P., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2014). “Comparing AHP and CBA as Decision Methods to Resolve the Choosing Problem in Detailed Design.” ASCE, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 141 (1) January 2015,
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000915.

    ABSTRACT: Multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) methods can help
    designers address the choosing problem in building detailed design. Many, however, appear to assume that all methods are
    equivalent. This paper argues that differences between MCDM methods matter. The first contribution of this paper is
    differentiating between the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and choosing by advantages (CBA) by comparing them
    through an example. The second contribution is explaining why CBA is superior to AHP for this context. In summary, CBA
    (1) provides a more context-based analysis than AHP, (2) does not incorporate conflicting judgments for weighing factors
    as AHP does, (3) does not assume linear trade-offs between factors as AHP does, (4) does not assume that factors have
    zero as a natural scale as AHP does, (5) focuses on differentiating between alternatives more than AHP, (6) maintains
    the result of the decision when nondifferentiating factors are removed, whereas AHP may not, and (7) defers subjective
    judgments until late in the decision-making process, whereas AHP requires expressing them earlier. This presents a
    significant research finding, considering the wide use of AHP. Further research is needed to assess what range of design
    decisions CBA supports.
  9. Lee, H.W., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2013).

    Target Setting Practice for Loans for Commercial Energy-Retrofit Projects.

    ASCE, Journal of Management in Engineering,
    DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000245, 04014046.

    ABSTRACT: Current practices in commercial loan underwriting
    appear to lack depth in analysis, and appear weak in evaluating energy-related risks. Consequently, they raise financial
    barriers to energy efficiency (EE) investments. In response, we suggest a target setting practice that borrowers and
    lenders collaboratively can use during the early stages of an energy retrofit project. The practice uses a simulation
    called Energy Retrofit Loan Analysis Model (ERLAM) to determine the target building performance and the allowable cost
    for design and construction. Using a case study of an energy retrofit project, this paper demonstrates use of ERLAM by
    evaluating the impact of two identified energy-related uncertainties (project cost uncertainty and operational practice
    uncertainty) on the financial performance of the investment. This target setting practice can help project parties gain
    greater understandings and early confidence in the feasible size- and terms of a loan before moving to design
    development. As a result, the practice can support commercial underwriting by helping to overcome financial barriers to
    energy retrofit projects.
  10. Lee, H.W., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2013).

    Energy-related Risk Management in Integrated Project Delivery.”

    ASCE, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Special Issue on Sustainability,
    published online in June, Dec 2013, Vol. 139, No. 12.
    DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000753

    ABSTRACT: Developing energy efficient commercial buildings
    requires an energy-related risk management practice that can increase the chance of achieving intended lifecycle
    financial goals. This paper suggests a management practice that deals with such energy-related risks, namely, project
    cost risk and performance risk. A prerequisite to applying the suggested management practice is a high level of
    collaboration among different disciplines during design development as promoted, for example, when using integrated
    project delivery (IPD). As a case study to validate the management practice, this paper presents a California hospital
    project where the unique features of IPD helped the project team apply the management practice in the course of managing
    the energy-related uncertainties of an energy-efficiency measure. This paper illustrates the detailed design decision-
    making process of the team that used Target Value Design, the lean design management method. As a contribution to the
    body of knowledge, the purposes of this study are to present the case study that serves to validate the suggested
    practice and to show that the IPD application contributed to the capability and effectiveness of the practice in
    increasing the reliability of achieving the target lifecycle financial values while reducing system complexity and
    overdesign.
  11. Ballard, G. and Tommelein, I.D. (2012).
    “Lean Management Methods for Complex Projects.”
    Engineering Project Organization Journal (TEPO), Taylor & Francis, 2:1-2, 85-96.

    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the principles, history, applications
    and current research issues associated with lean construction, in order to provide a foundation for future research in
    this area. Lean is a management approach that emerged in the automobile industry and spread initially to other forms of
    repetitive manufacturing and ultimately to service industries. Despite its success in practice, the lean philosophy and
    methods have not been fully evaluated and incorporated into the academic literature. The question remains to what extent
    lean management methods are unique and beneficial and how they are related to principles and models in management
    science, production management and related fields. One of the relevant issues is the adequacy of lean methods to the
    management of complex projects. As project complexity increases, emergent phenomena increase. Consequently, leadership
    must become more adaptive and less prescriptive in order to be successful. This paper describes some of the key lean
    management methods that deliver better outcomes on complex projects and also the interdependence of these methods with
    the structuring of commercial terms and organizational integration. It also describes the relationship between lean
    project management methods and conventional methods, and the limitations of both, and suggests directions for future
    research.
  12. Reijula, J. and Tommelein, I.D. (2012).

    Lean hospitals: a new challenge for facility designers.

    Intelligent Buildings International,
    pp. 1-18, DOI: 10.1080/17508975.2012.680429

    ABSTRACT: This article presents a literature review of a wide
    array of implementation studies of Lean healthcare practices, performed worldwide. First, we review some fundamentals of
    Lean thinking. Second, we describe the continuous work improvement cycle along with some commonly used Lean tools. We
    then examine how the implementation of Lean practices has affected hospitals and their users. Furthermore, we review the
    encountered challenges and opportunities. Finally, we present process- and technology improvement ideas to address the
    urgent needs and critical shortcomings of current healthcare practices. Lean practices are becoming increasingly
    widespread in the healthcare industry. Readers new to them might like to investigate their applicability more
    deeply.
  13. Hamzeh, F.R., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.D. (2012).

    Rethinking Lookahead Planning to Optimize Construction Workflow.

    Lean Construction Journal, 2012 Issue, Paper 2, pp. 15-34.

    ABSTRACT:

    Research Question: How to improve lookahead planning practices in the construction industry to increase the reliability of weekly work planning?

    Purpose: To present a framework to standardize lookahead planning practices, assess the performance of lookahead planning, and improve the reliability of production planning.

    Research Design/Method: This study employs case study analysis, industry interviews, and an industry survey to assess the current implementation of lookahead planning on construction projects in North America, South America, and Europe.

    Findings: The study findings indicate the existence of non-compliance with Last Planner(R) system rules, inadequate lookahead planning practices due to lack of standardized planning processes, sluggish identification and removal of constraints, and absence of analysis for plan failures.

    Limitations: The authors’ active role on the projects used as case studies may constitute a limitation to the research methods and tools used. The industry survey may have not covered all companies applying the Last Planner(R) system.

    Implications: This research provides a framework for applying the Last Planner(R) system rules during lookahead planning. It aims at increasing the success of the making activities ready, designing operations, and ultimately improving PPC.

    Value for practitioners: The study presents to industry practitioners applying the Last Planner(R) system a standardized framework for implementing lookahead planning on construction projects. The paper also highlights the use of two metrics to assess the performance of lookahead planning at a given point in time and to monitor performance over a period of time or between projects.

  14. Lee, H.W., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2012). “Design of a design-build infrastructure project using a point-bas{ed methodology.” ASCE, Journal of Management in Engineering, 28 (3) 291-299, DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000103.

    ABSTRACT: Our experience in engineering education and practice indicates that methodologies for architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) design management are characterized only to a limited extent. In domains other than AEC such methodologies are well-established and contribute to improving design performance. A step towards advancing AEC design management is to characterize design practices and explore the methodologies on which they may be based. In this vein, the authors describe a design practice observed while participating in the development of a design-build-operate-and-maintain (DBOM) proposal for an infrastructure megaproject. The development team’s design process followed a point-based methodology, i.e., early selection from a small set of design alternatives. The team was structured as a three-party joint venture, but, as observed, integration of efforts and collaboration among its design engineers and contractors were difficult and infrequent. The point-based design methodology used showed limitations. The authors counterpose methodologies including select-and-reuse or set-based design. Especially the latter is worth adopting in our AEC industry because it has resulted in superior design performance in other domains. By characterizing and documenting a design management methodology used in practice and counterposing alternatives, the authors aim to spur discussion on the teaching and practical application of AEC design management methodologies.

  15. Howell, G.A., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I. (2011). “Construction Engineering: Reinvigorating the Discipline.” ASCE, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, October, 137 (10) 740-744, DOI: 10.1061/%28ASCE%29CO.1943-7862.0000276.

    ABSTRACT: Construction Engineering is all about production and producing something useful is the very reason for projects to exist. How then to explain why Construction Engineering has progressively fallen out of focus in construction project management education and research? For an answer, we must understand the development of the discipline of construction management since the 1950s, a development that yielded a non-production-oriented approach to project management, one that provides the currently accepted operating system for managing the work in projects. This paper first traces the history of the development of the traditional operating system and related commercial terms and organizational practices. It argues that traditional practices rest on an assumption that careful development of a project schedule, managing the critical path and maximizing productivity within each activity will optimize project delivery in terms of cost and duration. Subsequently, we describe an alternative operating system, developed and proposed by the Lean Construction community. In contrast to the traditional approach, lean defers detailed planning until closer to the point of action, involves those who are to do the work in designing the production system and planning how to do it; aims to maximize project performance (not the pieces), and exploits breakdowns as opportunities for learning. The history of this development will be traced in broad strokes.

  16. Nguyen, H.V., B. Lostuvali and I.D. Tommelein (2010).

    A3: Decision Analysis Using Virtual First-Run Study of a Viscous Damping Wall System.

    Lean Construction Journal pp. 99-101.

  17. Tuholski, S.J. and Tommelein, I.D. (2010).

    Design Structure Matrix Implementation on a Seismic Retrofit.

    ASCE, Journal of Management in Engineering
    (http://jrnmeeng.edmgr.com/), July, 26 (3) 144-152,
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000016.

    ABSTRACT: A void exists in development of design theory
    methodology (DTM) within the structural engineering (SE) community. This void hampers efforts to resolve performance
    deficiencies including cost over-runs, unplanned rework, and sub-optimal design. In manufacturing, product design and
    production improvements have resulted from implementation of the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) methodology. DSM offers a
    means to represent, analyse, and decompose complex systems in order to improve their performance. DSM use within the
    architecture engineering construction (AEC) industry has been sporadic and focused primarily in the UK. Where applied,
    DSM has proven effective at helping AEC design teams streamline processes to address non-linearity (non-sequential
    information flows) introduced by iteration and complexity in design. When a DSM reveals iteration and highly dependent
    work, group brainstorming, collocated design sessions, rapid feedback, set-based design, and collaborative design aids
    can be used to increase overall team effectiveness. This paper examines a case study where DSM-based planning software
    was used on a seismic retrofit project to drive process improvement in design management. DSM correctly identified
    iterative activities central to design and provided the following; 1) a common vocabulary to discuss rework in the
    context of a multi-disciplinary design team, 2) a rational method to schedule team collocation and brainstorming efforts
    to maximize their benefit, and 3) a means to consider iterative activities (and associated hand-offs) in design work
    structuring.
  18. Milberg, C.T. and Tommelein, I.D. (2010).

    Tolerance and Constructability of Soldier Piles in Slurry Walls.

    ASCE, Journal of Performance for Constructed Facilities,
    March/April, 24 (2) 120-127, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000079.

    ABSTRACT: Process capability (PC) characterizes the
    variation in a parameter of a process’s output. From a constructability perspective, investigating PCs for geometric
    variation is important when specifying tolerances for all construction processes. This paper investigates a case
    involving soldier piles used in a slurry wall and compares the design specified tolerances to as-built field data. As
    with other cases investigated by the authors covering many major construction processes, this case also shows that
    designers specify tolerances based on tacit estimates of variation limits, not PCs. Consequently, the PCs consistently
    exceed the design specified tolerances, preventing the possibility of proper tolerance management and causing problems
    to manifest during construction. The authors conclude that variation estimates are an inaccurate basis for specifying
    tolerances and instead should be based on PCs.
  19. Tuholski , S.J., Gursel , A.P., Tommelein, I.D., and Bomba, G. (2009).

    ‘Lean’ Comparison using Process Charts of Complex Seismic Retrofit Projects.

    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., April, 135 (4) 330-339, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:4(330).

    ABSTRACT: This paper compares the delivery of two retrofit
    projects where seismic isolation bearings were installed. The comparison is retrospective. The design teams on these
    projects did not implement ‘lean’ thinking to develop their approach, nevertheless, observed process differences are
    characterized using a ‘lean’ process evaluation and optimization tool, and then gauged and rationalized from that
    perspective. Cross-functional process charts identify functional parties with interrelated material or information hand-
    offs. They help to identify (un)necessary steps or complexity as measured by number of hand-offs and interacting
    parties. Analysis of these charts shows that project value may stem from the owner integrating design development with
    product procurement and construction method selection. On one project, integration was made possible by structural
    engineers evaluating the impacts of product procurement on overall project performance, expert consultants providing
    construction process reviews, and experienced contractors participating in installation sequence development. This paper
    illustrates the value of developing a symbiotic relationship between designers and suppliers in a niche market. It
    stresses the need for work structuring early on in the delivery process, integrating process with product development,
    to improve project delivery.
  20. Gil, N., Beckman, S., and Tommelein, I.D. (2008).

    Problem-Solving Base Building under Uncertainty and Ambiguity: A
    Multiple-Case Study on an Airport Expansion Program.

    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., CO/2006/023664, 134 (12)
    991-1001 (December), DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2008)134:12(991).

    ABSTRACT: This multiple-case study induces alternative
    strategies to coordinate the overlap of tasks to detail and physically execute base-building with tasks to conceptualize
    the business-critical fit-out. Base-building subsystems provide service space for occupancy, whereas fit-out subsystems
    make the space functional. Our empirical findings on problem-solving base-building design under uncertainty and
    ambiguity stem from a number of projects in an airport expansion program. They suggest that base-building subsystems
    show low sensitivity to incremental changes in fit-out as their definitions are seldom optimized to eliminate slack.
    Yet, base-building subsystems show high sensitivity to radical changes in fit-out when the architectures of the two
    subsystems are integral to one another. Three strategies for problem-solving base-building stand out: (1) iterate design
    when preliminary information about fit-out is ambiguous, or precise but unstable; (2) physically decouple the
    architectures of base-building and fit-out; and (3) design buffers in base-building when preliminary information about
    fit-out lacks precision but it is not ambiguous. These buffers can be designed out if uncertainties in fit-out resolve
    favourably before starting the physical execution for base-building.
  21. Gil, N., Beckman, S., and Tommelein, I. (2008).

    Upstream Problem-Solving under Uncertainty and Ambiguity: Evidence from Airport
    Expansion Projects.
    IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management ,
    DOI: 10.1109/TEM.2008.922635, published online as of 10 June 2008

    ABSTRACT: Environmental changes are common during development of
    large engineering (infrastructure) projects. To accommodate them when they occur, developers design and physically
    execute the upstream base building with preliminary information about the downstream business-critical fit-out. Base-
    building subsystems provide service space for occupancy, whereas fit-out subsystems make the space functional. We build
    theory on design under uncertainty and ambiguity from case study research, drawing on theory of preliminary information
    exchange in concurrent development. We find that the base-building subsystem shows low sensitivity to incremental
    changes in fit-out. However, it shows high sensitivity to radical changes, unless the two subsystems interact in a
    modular fashion. In the face of slow resolution of downstream uncertainty and difficulties in decoupling the physical
    interfaces (as is the case in modular design for example), upstream developers avoid starvation by making working
    assumptions at risk and exploring the space of possible design solutions through an early “optioneering” stage. Two
    patterns for problem-solving upstream stand out: 1) iterate design when preliminary information is either ambiguous or
    precise, but unstable and 2) build buffers in the design definition to absorb foreseeable changes when the preliminary
    information lacks precision but is not ambiguous. Buffers can be designed out if downstream uncertainties resolve
    favorably before the buffers are physically executed.
  22. Alves, T. da C.L. and
    Tommelein, I.D. (2007). “Cadeias de
    suprimentos na construção civil:
    análise
    e simulação computacional.” (original is in
    Portugese, title in English is “Construction supply chains: analysis
    and computational simulation.”) Ambiente Construído,
    Porto Alegre, 7
    (2) 31-44, abr./jun. ISSN 1678-8621; available online at “
    PDF

    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the importance of managing supply chains in the construction industry as well as concepts that may contribute for the improvement of their performance. In order to illustrate the concepts discussed and their importance, the authors present a simulation model developed using data from the HVAC sheet metal ductwork supply chain. Conducting experiments on supply chains can be rather costly and time consuming. Therefore, simulation tools can be employed to carry out low cost studies of supply chains. Those tools can be used for generating models that mimic a controlled environment in which experiments can be carried out. Four scenarios were studied to evaluate the impact that variations on activity durations and batching have on the project lead time. The conclusions highlight the use of simulation as a tool for supply chain and production system design, the need to improve communication channels between different parts of the supply chain aiming to reduce inventories, and the impact that variability and batching have on the project lead time.
    RESUMO: Este artigo discute a importância do gerenciamento da cadeia de suprimentos da construção civil bem como conceitos que podem contribuir para a melhoria de seu desempenho. De modo a ilustrar os conceitos discutidos e a sua relevância para o tema, as autoras apresentam um modelo de simulação desenvolvido com base em dados da cadeia de suprimentos de dutos de ar-condicionado. Experimentos com cadeias de suprimentos podem demandar muito tempo e esforço para serem realizados. Dessa forma, a simulação computacional tem grande potencial para o estudo de cadeias de suprimentos, pois pode ser empregada com baixo custo e gerar modelos e conclusões que representem uma realidade controlada na qual experimentos podem ser realizados. Quatro cenários foram simulados para avaliar o impacto que variações nas durações das atividades da cadeia de suprimentos e a definição de grandes lotes têm no tempo de entrega (lead time) de um projeto. Como conclusões, destacam-se o uso de simulação computacional para o projeto de sistemas produtivos e cadeias de suprimentos, a necessidade de melhorar a comunicação entre partes da cadeia como forma de reduzir seus estoques, e o aumento do tempo de entrega do projeto à medida que a variabilidade das durações e o tamanho do lote aumentam.
  23. Gil, N., Tommelein, I.D.,
    and Schruben, L.W. (2006).
    “External Change in Large Engineering Design Projects: The Role of the
    Client.” “IEEE
    Transactions on Engineering Management
    , 53 (3)
    426-439, August.

    ABSTRACT: A problem facing the management of large engineering projects is: Why do clients often adopt an early commitment strategy on design decision-making when they want to speed up project delivery, yet allow late changes to the project definition to accommodate the resolution of (un)foreseen external uncertainties? Empirical findings illustrate this problem and underpin a 2-stage model of the concept development process, in which conceptualization is followed by design, and stochastic pre-emption simulates asymmetric changes. Simulation experiments demonstrate that when clients make commitments early in conditions of high uncertainty, they increase the likelihood (upside risk) of speeding up the delivery if external events do not materialize; however, if these events do materialize, they increase the likelihood (downside risk) of causing design rework and losing process predictability— especially when the ability to reuse design work after a change is limited. We show that moderate design postponement is appropriate if clients strategically relinquish some of the upside risk of finishing the project sooner. Moderate design postponement does not increase the downside risk of overrunning the project completion date in relation to the risk clients incur when they commit earlier because it reduces expected variability in design. These insights highlight the client’s role in foreseeing external uncertainties and judiciously instructing changes to design teams. They also demonstrate the applicability of postponement to large engineering design projects where external uncertainty emerges as a fundamental contingency.
  24. Elfving, J.A., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2005).
    “Consequences of Competitive Bidding in Project Based Production.”
    Journal
    of Purchasing and Supply Management
    , 11:173-181.

    ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the consequences competitive bidding have on lead time in project-based production, such as construction. Earlier studies argued that competitive bidding may significantly increase resource consumption and generate waste in the delivery process, which this paper supports. However, the relation between competitive bidding and lead time has been less discussed. Lead time reduction has long been considered a fundamental objective for overall business improvement. An objective of our study was to understand what contributes to long lead times. The reported findings are from a 4-year study on the delivery process of power distribution equipment, a type of engineered-to-order (ETO) product. The paper concludes by suggesting procurement practices that reduce lead times for ETO products.
  25. Gil, N., Tommelein, I.D., Stout, A., and Garrett, T. (2005).
    Embodying
    Product and Process Flexibility to Cope with Challenging Project
    Deliveries.
    ” ASCE, Journal of Construction
    Engineering and Management
    , 131 (4) 439–448, April.

    ABSTRACT: Four factors make it challenging to manage semiconductor fabrication facility (“fabs”) projects: technical complexity of the product design, need to compress the project duration, need to reduce upfront costs, and unexpected project changes. The strategies employed by practitioners to cope with these challenges form an intricate puzzle. We empirically develop a framework that provides a structure for helping to solve this puzzle, which comprises two principles: investing upfront in a flexible product design and structuring a flexible process. Empirical findings reveal that project teams make commitments early on by overdesigning but also postpone critical decisions by differentiating the scope of their work. Project teams employ other strategies such as increasing communication, using modular architectures, engaging in four-dimensional computer-based modeling, and fabricating components and subsystems off-site. Our analysis yields understanding on the purposes and performance tradeoffs of these strategies, and on how they embody the two principles. Project managers may find the framework useful when deciding which strategies best suit other equally challenging projects.
  26. Gil, N., Tommelein, I.D.,
    and Beckman, S. (2004). “Postponing
    Design Processes in Unpredictable Environments.
    Research
    in Engineering Design
    , 15 (3) 139-154, December.

    ABSTRACT: This work explores the effectiveness of design postponement in the concept development phase of large-scale engineering projects. Our empirical research shows limited use of postponement in semiconductor fabrication facility (fab) projects despite evidence that the customer inevitably requests design criteria changes in the projects life. We simulate fab concept development as a 2-stage process—conceptualization followed by design. We find that postponing the start of design in relation to the completion of conceptualization reduces the average resources spent on design and the variability in the concept development duration but increases the average concept development duration. A sensitivity analysis on the postponement lag duration indicates, however, that some degree of postponement may allow reducing design rework without increasing the risk of overrunning the project completion date, in comparison to the risk with early commitment. Further, simulation indicates that the effectiveness of postponement decreases as designers’ capability to reuse work increases.
  27. Tsao, C.C.Y., Tommelein,
    I.D., Swanlund,
    E., and Howell, G.A. (2004). “Work
    Structuring to Achieve Integrated Product-Process Design.

    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., Nov/Dec, 130
    (6) 780-789.

    ABSTRACT: This paper presents “work structuring,” a term used to describe the effort of integrating product and process design throughout the project development process. To illustrate current work structuring practice, we describe a case study involving the installation of door frames into walls in a prison. We analyze why various problems existed. To improve the work structuring effort, we apply the “five whys” to develop local and global fixes for the system of precast walls and door frames. The five whys is a technique to elicit alternative ways of structuring work without being constrained by contractual agreements, traditions, or trade boundaries. We discuss the importance of dimensional tolerances in construction and how these affect the handoff of work from one group of workers to the next. We argue that these constraints and tolerance management practices are so embedded that project participants can miss opportunities to better integrate product and process design. We propose shifting the focus of work structuring from maximizing local trade efficiency to improving overall performance in the delivery system of a capital project.

    This paper was reprinted in “Doors
    and Hardware
    :

    • Tsao, C.C.Y., Tommelein, I.D., Swanlund, E., and
      Howell, G.A. (2006a). “Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated
      Product-Process Design, Part I.” Doors and Hardware, June,
      pp. 42-48.
    • Tsao, C.C.Y., Tommelein, I.D., Swanlund, E., and
      Howell, G.A. (2006b). “Work Structuring to Achieve Integrated
      Product-Process Design, Part II.” Doors and Hardware, July,
      pp. 32-44 and 77.
  28. Walsh, K.D., Hershauer, J.C., Tommelein, I.D., and Walsh, T.A. (2004).

    Strategic Positioning of Inventory to Match Demand in a Capital Projects Supply Chain.

    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., Nov/Dec, 130 (6) 818-826,
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2004)130:6(818)

    ABSTRACT: Industrial buyers of capital facilities have experienced and continue to experience pressure to reduce facility design and construction lead time. This pressure arises both internally (due to successes in manufacturing lead time reductions) and externally (due to competitive forces including narrowing product delivery windows). This paper presents a case study detailing one owner’s efforts to reduce the length and variability of delivery time for long-lead construction materials in order to improve overall project lead time. The owner adopted a long-term multiproject perspective, procuring material in advance of specific projects and holding it at a position in the supply chain selected to allow flexibility for customization. Reduction in lead time of 75% from order to delivery of the material resulted for individual projects within the owner’s capital plan. As a result, the material was available at the construction site well in advance of its need for erection. To study if holding material at alternative locations in the supply chain could provide a better match between delivery quantities and the demand for erection, the supply chain was simulated. In this case study, demand information was imprecise, allowing only the quantity of material delivered to be considered rather than matching specific items to specific locations. Nonetheless, the results demonstrate the utility of simulation in the capital projects supply chain and the value of improving demand forecasts.
  29. Gil, N., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2004).
    “Theoretical Comparison of Alternative Delivery Systems for Projects in Unpredictable Environments.”
    Construction Management and Economics
    , 22 (5) 495-508, June.

    ABSTRACT: A project delivery process simulation is presented based upon empirical studies in the design-build environment of semiconductor fabrication facilities (‘fabs’). The model captures key tasks and decisions in design, procurement and construction, as well as design criteria changes along the delivery of a R&D fab utility system. Simulation shows that to involve the specialty contractor from the project start on average expedites project delivery since it prevents delays caused by bidding and by contractors’ unfamiliarity with the design product definition. Yet, in unpredictable project environments – environments in which design criteria are likely to change irrespectively of the project progress status – simulation reveals that the averages of construction rework and waste increase if design is prematurely frozen. Assuming that work methods do not change and design criteria remain uncertain, results indicate that a system that combines early contractor involvement with judicious postponement of the design start reduces the average duration of the fab utility delivery in relation to the expected duration if competitive bidding was used, with limited increase in the averages of construction rework and waste. Additional efficiency is gained when specialty contractors relax conservative assumptions on anticipated site conditions. An economic model uses simulation results to assess the tradeoffs between alternative project delivery systems for the case of R&D fabs.
  30. Choo, H.J., Hammond, J., Tommelein, I.D., Austin, S., and Ballard, G. (2004).
    “DePlan: Tool for Integrated Design Management.” Automation in Construction, 13 (3) 313-326, May.

    ABSTRACT: The iterative and information-intensive nature of the design process makes it hard to plan and schedule work using tools for conventional project management. The success of design projects depends on the quality of the available information. This paper proposes DePlan as a method for integrated design management during the detail design phase. DePlan integrates two techniques, namely ADePT and planning according to Last Planner™, each involving a software tool. ADePT implements the dependency structure matrix analysis method to identify iterative processes and the planning strategy for managing them. Planning according to Last Planner™ follows a production management philosophy that includes reliably scheduling and controlling design activities. Combined as DePlan, these techniques help planners generate quality plans, i.e., plans that express what is ready for execution by sequencing activities in the right order, identifying informational and resource requirements ahead of design execution, and by scheduling only activities that have met these requirements. This collaborative research has successfully developed the DePlan approach and associated computer software and tested them.
  31. Dzeng,
    R.-J.
    and Tommelein, I.D.
    (2004). “Product Modeling to Support Case-based Construction Planning
    and Scheduling.”
    Automation in Construction, 13 (3) 341-360, May.

    ABSTRACT: Many
    human schedulers create schedules by reusing past similar schedules.
    The retrieval and reuse of similar schedules are subjective and experience-based. This paper explores different notions of similarity required when performing different scheduling tasks. It describes the CasePlan system that helps schedulers retrieve and reuse parts of existing schedules based on a generic product model, and apply case-based reasoning to generate new schedules. The validation experiment demonstrated CasePlan’s accuracy in determining individual subnetworks and activity durations, but weak performance in determining interlinks between subnetworks, which highly depends upon the availability of pertinent cases and the level of detail of project information.
  32. Arbulu, R.J., Tommelein, I.D., Walsh, K.D., and Hershauer, J.C. (2003).
    “Value Stream Analysis of a Re-engineered Construction Supply Chain.”
    J. Building Research and Information
    – Special Issue on Re-engineering Construction, Spon
    Press, 31 (2) 161-171.

    ABSTRACT: A study is presented that documents the most common configuration of the supply chain for pipe supports used in power plants in the USA. This supply chain, like many others in construction, has numerous inefficiencies, many of which occur at the interfaces between processes, disciplines or organizations. Recognizing and understanding such inefficiencies, their causes and potential remedies provides a basis for process re-engineering. The study describes how today’s industry practices are changing to yield shorter supply chain lead times. To model the mechanisms that drive those changes, data are presented from industry practice in the form of value stream maps that span across organizational disciplines and company boundaries. Metrics commonly used in lean construction are introduced to gauge system performance. A current state map documents how work flows throughout the design, procurement and fabrication phases of pipe supports. Analysis of this current state map highlights value-added and non-value-added times and lead times. A future state map then illustrates process improvements that can be obtained by applying various supply chain management tactics. The methodology applied in this study could be applied to other construction supply chains equally well.
  33. Whelton, M., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.D. (2002).
    A Knowledge Management Framework for Project Definition.
    ITcon, Special Issue ICT for Knowledge Management in Construction, Vol. 7, pp.
    197-212.

    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a knowledge management framework for project definition of capital facility projects. The conceptual framework emphasizes project-based learning and the creation of group knowledge in early phase project planning and design activity. The use of multi-disciplinary expertise in this phase of project development acknowledges the use of multiple decision frames by which stakeholders approach project solutions. This research views project definition as a collaborative decision-making process, and highlights the need for supporting group management techniques and technologies. Project definition is regarded as the phase of project development where exploration of alternatives creates innovative problem and solution definitions that allows maximum customer value generation to be developed. This paper proposes a management framework to support organizational and process interfaces within project definition. The model is based primarily on findings from recent research literature and on exploratory descriptive research. The model presents a process for project definition and supports group knowledge creation and management. The model bases its development on soft systems methodology to support group cognition, learning and creative solution generation. Collaborative group theory is incorporated into the model to support project definition. The framework builds on theoretical principles of lean design and construction.
  34. Gil, N., Tommelein, I. D., Kirkendall, R.L., and Ballard, G. (2001).
    “Leveraging Specialty-Contractor Knowledge in Design-Build Organizations.” “Engineering,
    Construction, and Architectural Management
    (ECAM),
    October/December, 8 (5/6) 355-367.

    ABSTRACT: Specialty contractors have knowledge to contribute to the early design of architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) products. In current practice, however, they are seldom involved in early design, but evidence suggests that their early involvement is increasing. Lean construction theory advocates such involvement. The practice of involving suppliers in product development efforts and manufacturing has proven to be highly successful. The paper reports on empirical research that identified the contributions of specialty contractor knowledge to early design, which led to gains in process efficiency and improvements in product quality. These contributions are categorized and illustrated by means of examples that stem from current practice or present potential opportunities for improvement. Reasons are given why specialty contractor knowledge is often ignored in design. Changes in AEC practices nevertheless suggest that organizations are creating conditions to increase interaction between designers and specialty contractors. Such interactions will help AEC organizations to retain and share the knowledge of individuals as well as learn to develop new knowledge.
  35. Zouein, P.P. and Tommelein, I.D. (2001).

    Improvement Algorithm for Limited Space Scheduling.
    ” ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 127 (2) 116-124, March/April,
    DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2001)127:2(116).

    ABSTRACT: Selecting construction methods and scheduling activities along with planning the use of site space over time are key to constructing a project efficiently. Site layout and activity scheduling have traditionally been tackled as independent problems. Their interdependence is often ignored at the planning stage and may be dealt with-if at all-when construction is underway. Problems that may have had easy solutions if dealt with earlier, may then be expensive to remedy. This paper addresses the combined problem termed “space scheduling” and presents an algorithmic time-space trade-off model for adjusting activity durations and start dates to decrease the need for space over congested time periods. The model characterizes resource space requirements over time and establishes a time-space relationship for each activity in the schedule based on minimum, normal, and maximum resource levels. An example illustrates the presented algorithm that generates a feasible space schedule.
  36. span class=”SpellE”>Zouein, P.P. and Tommelein, I.D. (1999).

    Dynamic Layout Planning Using a Hybrid Incremental Solution Method.

    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 125 (6) 400-408, Nov/Dec, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1999)125:6(400).

    ABSTRACT: Efficiently using site space to accommodate resources throughout the duration of a construction project is a critical problem. It is termed the “dynamic layout planning” problem. Solving it involves creating a sequence of layouts that span the entire project duration, given resources, the timing of their presence on site, their changing demand for space over time, constraints on their location, and costs for their relocation. A dynamic layout construction procedure is presented here. Construction resources, represented as rectangles, are subjected to two-dimensional geometric constraints on relative locations. The objective is to allocate site space to all resources so that no spatial conflicts arise, while keeping distance-based adjacency and relocation costs minimal. The solution is constructed stepwise for consecutive time frames. For each resource, selected heuristically one at a time, constraint satisfaction is used to compute sets of feasible positions. Subsequently, a linear program is solved to find the optimal position for each resource so as to minimize all costs. The resulting sequence of layouts is suboptimal in terms of the stated global objective, but the algorithm helps the layout planner explore better alternative solutions.
  37. Tommelein, I.D., Riley, D., and Howell, G.A. (1999).
    Parade Game: Impact of Work Flow Variability on Trade Performance.
    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 125 (5) 304-310, Sept/Oct, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1999)125:5(304)

    ABSTRACT: The Parade Game illustrates what impact work flow variability has on the performance of construction trades and their successors. The game consists of simulating a construction process in which resources produced by one trade are prerequisite to work by the next trade. Production-level detail, describing resources being passed from one trade to the next, illustrates that throughput will be reduced, project completion delayed, and waste increased by variations in flow. The game shows that it is possible to reduce waste and shorten project duration by improving the reliability of work flow between trades. Basic production management concepts are thus applied to construction management. They highlight two shortcomings of using CPM for field-level planning: CPM makes modeling the dependence of ongoing activities between trades or with operations unwieldy and it does not explicitly represent reliability. The Parade Game can be played in a classroom setting either by hand or using a computer. Computer simulation enables students to experiment with numerous alternatives in order to sharpen their intuition regarding variability, process throughput, buffers, productivity, and crew sizing. Managers interested in schedule compression will benefit from understanding work flow variability’s impact on succeeding trade performance.
  38. Tommelein, I.D. (1999). “Lean Construction Experiments
    using Discrete-event Simulation: Techniques and Tools for Process
    Re-engineering?” International Journal of Computer-Integrated
    Design and Construction
    , CIDAC, Special issue on Construction
    Process Re-engineering, 1 (2) 53-63, September.

    ABSTRACT: The construction community concerned with process re-engineering needs formal techniques and modeling tools to support their efforts. This paper proposes that lean construction, a theory of production custom-tailored to suit the needs of construction, be embraced to drive re-engineering efforts. Several lean production techniques have already been adapted successfully to address construction needs. This paper specifically provides an example that illustrates a lean technique called ‘pulling.’ It also shows how computer-based discrete-event simulation can be used as a tool to model and experiment with alternative production systems, in order to study their characteristic properties such as buffer sizes and production rates. The provided example pertains to supply-chain materials-management in industrial construction. The systematic application of a production theory combined with computer experimentation prior to field implementation of a re-engineered system is bound to increase its likelihood of success.
  39. Choo, H.J., Tommelein, I.D., Ballard, G., and Zabelle, T.R. (1999).
    WorkPlan: Constraint-based Database for Work Package Scheduling.
    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 125 (3) 151-160, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1999)125:3(151).

    ABSTRACT: A database program called WorkPlan has been created to systematically develop weekly work plans. Such work plans are used by crew foremen in scheduling work packages and allocating available labor and equipment resources. WorkPlan adopts the Last Planner methodology, which implements several lean construction techniques. A week prior to conducting work, WorkPlan guides the user step by step through the process of spelling out work packages, identifying constraints, checking constraint satisfaction, releasing work packages, and allocating resources; then at the end of the week, collecting field progress data and reasons for plan failure. This systematic approach helps the user create quality work plans and learn from understanding reasons for failure. The lean planning philosophy underlying WorkPlan and the functionality of the computer program implementation are detailed in this paper. Various ways of displaying work package data are illustrated. WorkPlan’s job-shop scheduling view complements the view traditionally adopted by project management, as is reflected in scheduling tools using the critical path method (CPM).
  40. Tommelein, I.D. (1998).
    Pull-driven Scheduling for Pipe-Spool Installation: Simulation of Lean Construction Technique.” ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 124 (4) 279-288.

    ABSTRACT: Many construction processes include installation of unique materials in specific locations in the facility being built: materials and locations must match before installation can take place. Mismatches due to delay and uncertainty in supplying materials or completing prerequisite work at those locations hamper field productivity. This is illustrated here using a model of a materials-management process with a matching problem that typifies fast-track process-plant projects. The uniqueness of materials and locations combined with the unpredictability in duration and variation in execution quality of various steps in the supply chain allow for different ways to sequence material delivery and work area completion. Several alternatives are described. Their impact on process execution is illustrated by means of probabilistic process models. One model reflects total lack of coordination between delivery and work area completion prior to the start of construction; a second one describes perfect coordination. The corresponding materials staging buffers and construction progress are plotted based on output from discrete-event simulation models. A third probabilistic model then illustrates the use of the lean construction technique called pull-driven scheduling. Real-time feedback regarding the status of progress on site is provided to the fabricator off site so process steps can be re-sequenced opportunistically. This yields smaller buffers and earlier project completion and, when properly accounted for, increased productivity.

    The Stroboscope source code file PipeSpool.STR of the pipe-spool model described in this paper is available for download by clicking “here. Please acknowledge the source when using this model in or as a basis for your work. You will need to get the “STROBOSCOPE simulation engine to run this code.

  41. Dzeng, R.J. and Tommelein, I.D. (1997).
    “Boiler Erection Scheduling Using Product Models and Case-based Reasoning.”
    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 123 (3) 338-347.

    ABSTRACT: Contractors who repeatedly construct facilities designed by copying major parts from one project to the next find that previously developed schedules associated with those designs could be reused to schedule new work. To facilitate such reuse, project characteristics must be articulated and associated schedules described to include not only traditional, numerical scheduling data, but also scheduling constraints. In addition, knowledge about how to reuse schedules must be available. The CasePlan system, presented here, supports and augments the scheduling activity of people who reason about cases—each case describing the design and schedule of a completed project—to generate new project schedules. Specifically, CasePlan reuses annotated cases to automatically schedule the erection of power plant boilers. Because such boilers have a more-or-less standardized design, a generic boiler product model can serve as the basis for assessing similarities between designs. On this basis CasePlan selects schedules for reuse. A user can also interact with CasePlan to isolate fragments of case schedules and adapt them to better suit the variables of the new project at hand.
  42. Tommelein, I.D., Carr, R.I., and Odeh, A.M. (1994). “Assembly of Simulation Networks using Designs, Plans, and Methods.“ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 120 (4) 796-815.

    ABSTRACT: An object-oriented and interactive computer system is presented that realistically models construction processes by matching resource properties with design component properties and operation durations. This system, named CIPROS, uses a modular representation to create discrete-event simulation networks, and to aid in relating simulation output back to the design and construction plan of a facility to be built. CIPROS users must identify and describe attributes of components to be constructed, based on the facility’s design drawings and specifications, and they must develop a critical path method (CPM) plan. They must also select a construction method to perform each activity by retrieving the appropriate elemental simulation network from a library of networks that represent such methods. CIPROS then pieces together the networks based on sequential relationships from the plan and property values input from the drawing and specification data. The latter initialize the simulation network resources that make up the constructed facility. To complete the simulation network, users must specify the construction resources that are available to perform the work and which may be shared by activities. CIPROS comprises a fully operational discrete-event simulation engine that is called once a network is completed. Besides producing statistical reports that are instrumental in assessing the quality of the construction plan, CIPROS can also be used to check the degree of facility completion as the simulation progresses.
  43. Balkany, A., Birmingham, W.P., Maxim, B.R., Runkel, J.T., and Tommelein, I.D. (1994). “DIDS: Rapidly Prototyping Configuration Design Systems.” Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, (5) 33-45.

    ABSTRACT: This paper describes an object-oriented system, known as the Domain-Independent Design System (DIDS), for rapidly constructing design tools. DIDS supports a graphic-based development paradigm, where a tool builder assembles a design tool from a library of reusable software objects called mechanisms. Once configured, these objects are automatically converted to C++ code that implements the design system. This paper explores the issues involved in constructing DIDS, particularly the definition of objects to ensure that they capture the proper level of functionality and can be easily combined. An example of DIDS constructing a bicycle configuration system is given.
  44. Tommelein, I.D. and Zouein, P.P. (1993).
    “Interactive Dynamic Layout Planning.”
    ASCE, J. of Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt., 119 (2) 266-287.

 

Technical
Reports

    1. Tommelein, I.D. and Ballard, G. (2011). Megaproject
      Leadership Case Study: The Cathedral Hill Hospital Project (CHH) in San
      Francisco, California.
      P2SL Report 11-01, Project
      Production Systems Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley,
      June.
    2. Tommelein, I.D., Ballard, G., Arroyo, P., and Denerolle, S.
      (2011). Megaproject Leadership Case Study: Terminal 5 at
      Heathrow Airport, London, UK.
      P2SL Report 11-02, Project
      Production Systems Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley,
      July.
    3. Tommelein, I.D. (2004). Tool and Material
      Management Systems.
      New Horizons Foundation, Chantilly,
      VA,
      www.newhorizonsfoundation.org, 46 pages.
    4. Tommelein, I.D. (2004). The
      Value Chain: Adding Value to the Supply Chain
      ,
      Mechanical Contracting Education & Research Foundation (MCERF),
      Chantilly,
      VA.
      Also see
      http://www.mcaa.org/news/pressreleases/2004-11-02ValueChain.cfm
ABSTRACT:This MCERF
study defines the construction supply chain and highlights key concepts
that will help you transform your supply chain into a value chain.
    1. Tommelein, I.D., Walsh, K.D., and Hershauer,
      J.C. (2003). Improving Capital Projects Supply Chain
      Performance.
      Research
      Report PT172-11
      , Construction Industry Institute, Austin,
      TX,
      241 pp.
    2. Choo, H.J.
      and Tommelein, I.D. (1999). “Parade
      of Trades: A Computer Game for Understanding Variability and Dependence.

      Technical Report 99-1, Construction Engineering and Management Program,
      Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley,
      September.


Click
here to
download a fully executable copy of the Parade Game.

Not-for-profit educational
use of this program is hereby granted. If the program is used in any
money-making instructional, commercial, consulting, or other setting,
written
permission to do so must be obtained in advance of such use by
contacting Professor
Iris D. Tommelein
.

  1. Tommelein, Iris D. and Ballard, Glenn (1997).
    “Look-ahead Planning: Screening and Pulling.”
    Technical Report No. 97-9, Construction Engineering and Management Program, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,
    University of California.
    Berkeley, CA. Also invited paper that appeared in Proc. Second Intl. Seminar on Lean
    Construction
    , 20-21 October 1997, Sao Paulo, Brazil,
    organized by A.S.I. Conte, Logical Systems, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  2. Tommelein, Iris D. and Ballard, Glenn (1997). “Coordinating
    Specialists.
    Technical Report No. 97-8,
    Construction Engineering and Management Program, Civil and
    Environmental Engineering Department, University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    CA.
    Also invited paper that appeared
    in Proc. Second Intl. Seminar on Lean Construction,
    20-21 October 1997, Sao Paulo,
    Brazil,
    organized by A.S.I. Conte, Logical Systems, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  3. Tommelein, I.D. (1997).
    Discrete-event
    Simulation of a Pull-driven Materials-handling Process that Requires
    Resource Matching: Example of Pipe-spool Installation.
    Technical
    Report 97-2
    , Constr.
    Engrg. and Mgmt. Program, Civil and Envir. Engrg.
    Dept., U.C. Berkeley, March, 53 pages.
  4. Tommelein, Iris and Gupta, Anil (1987).

    Conceptual Structures for Spatial Reasoning.

    Term Paper for CS309A Conceptual Structures with Prof. John F. Sowa,
    Fall, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, 56 pages.


Papers in Refereed Conferences or Proceedings

2015

  • Do, Doanh, Ballard, Glenn, and Tommelein, Iris D. (2015).
    “Alignment and Misalignment of Incentives within Target Value Design and Integrated Project Delivery.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 285 submitted for review.
  • Faloughi, M., Linnik, M., et al. + + TOMMELEIN? + BALLARD? (2015).
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 228 submitted for review.
  • Frandson, Adam Gene and Tommelein, Iris D. (2015).
    “Improving Integrated Planning Practices with Last Planner Principles.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 115 submitted for review.
  • Frandson, Adam G., Tommelein, Iris D., and Seppanen, Olli + BALLARD? (2015).
    “Comparison between the Location based management system and Takt time planning.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 244 submitted for review.
  • Martinez, Eder and Tommelein, Iris D. + ARIANA? (2015).
    “Collaborative Design and Formwork Standardization in Affordable Housing: A Case Study in Ecuador.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 141 submitted for review.
  • Tommelein, Iris D. (2015).
    “Teaching Lean Construction using Constructs Modeled using Discrete Event Simulation.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 178 submitted for review.
  • Tommelein, Iris D. and Frandson, Adam (2015).
    “Rationalizing the Success of Takt Time Planning.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 197 submitted for review.
  • Viana, Daniela Dietz, Tillmann, Patricia André, Tommelein, Iris D., and Formoso, Carlos T. (2015).
    “Analysis of HVAC Subcontractor Mechanisms for JIT Materials Supply to a Construction Site.”
    Proc. 23rd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 23),
    Perth, Australia, July, abstract 228 submitted for review.

2014

  • Paz Arroyo, Glenn Ballard and Iris D. Tommelein (2014).
    “Choosing By Advantages and Rhetoric in Building Design: Relationship and Potential Synergies.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 391-400.
  • Paz Arroyo, Iris D. Tommelein and Glenn Ballard (2014).
    “Comparing Weighting Rating and Calculating vs. Choosing By Advantages to Make Design Choices.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 401-412.
  • Doanh Do, Chao Chen, Glenn Ballard and Tommelein, I.D. (2014).
    “Target Value Design as a Method for Controlling Project Cost Overruns.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 171-181.
  • Fatos Elezi, David Resch, Iris D. Tommelein, Wolfgang Bauer, Maik Maurer, and Udo Lindemann (2014).
    “A Viable System Model Perspective on Variant Management based on a Structural Complexity Management Approach.”
    Proc. 16th International Dependency and Structure Modeling Conference (DSM 2014),
    Paris, France, 2-4 July 2014.
  • Fatos Elezi et al. (2014).
    “Analyzing Implementation of Lean Production Control with the Viable System Model.”
    Proc. 2014 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM2014),
    9-12 December 2014, Malaysia, accepted for publication, IEEM14-P-0173.
  • Frandson, A., Berghede, K. and Tommelein, I.D. (2014).
    “Takt-Time Planning and the Last Planner.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 571-580.
  • Frandson, A. and Tommelein, I.D. (2014).
    “Development of a Takt-time Plan: A Case Study.”
    In Castro-Lacouture, D., Javier Irizarry, J., and Baabak Ashuri, B. (eds.).
    Proc. Construction Research Congress 2014: Construction in a Global Network,
    Atlanta, Georgia, 19-21 May 19-21, 2014, ASCE, pp. 1646-1655.
    doi: 10.1061/9780784413517.168
  • Frandson, A. and Tommelein, I.D. (2014).
    “Automatic Generation of a Daily Space Schedule.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 617-626.
  • Daryl Powell, Jan Ola Strandhagen, Iris Tommelein, Glenn Ballard, Monica Rossi (2014).
    “A New Set of Principles for Pursuing the Lean Ideal in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturers.”
    Procedia CIRP, Volume 17,
    in Hoda ElMaraghy (editor).
    Variety Management in Manufacturing — Proceedings of the 47th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems,
    pp. 571-576, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212827114004144#
  • Michael T. Schmidt, Fatos Elezi, Iris Tommelein, Klas Berghede and Udo Lindemann (2014).
    “Supporting Organizational Design Towards Lean with the Viable System Model.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 73-83.
  • Michael Timo Schmidt et al. (2014).
    “Towards Recursive Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycles for Continuous Improvement.”
    Proc. 2014 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM2014),
    9-12 December 2014, Malaysia, accepted for publication, IEEM14-P-0483.
  • Patricia Tillmann, Glenn Ballard and Iris Tommelein (2014).
    “A Mentoring Approach to Implement Lean Construction.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 1283-1293.
  • Patricia Tillmann, Klas Berghede, Glenn Ballard and Iris Tommelein (2014).
    “Developing a Production System on IPD: Considerations for a Pluralistic Environment.”
    Proc. 22nd Ann. Conf. of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 22),
    Oslo, Norway, 25-27 June 2014, pp. 317-328.

2013

  • Arroyo, P., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2013).
    “Using ‘Choosing by advantages’ to Select Ceiling Tile from a Global Sustainability Perspective.”
    in Formoso, C. and Tzortzopoulos, P. (eds.)
    Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 21),
    Fortaleza, Brazil.
  • Elezi, F., Schmidt, M., Tommelein, I.D. and Lindemann, U. (2013). “Enhanced Viability in Organizations: An Approach to Expanding the Requirements of the Viable System Model.” IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, 10-13 December 2013, Bangkok, Thailand. (paper IEEM13-P-0446)
  • Frandson, A., Berghede, K., and Tommelein, I.D. (2013).
    “Takt Time Planning for Construction of Exterior Cladding.”
    in Formoso, C. and Tzortzopoulos, P. (eds.)
    Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 21),
    Fortaleza, Brazil.
  • Hickethier, G., Tommelein, I.D., and Lostuvali, B. (2013).
    “Social Network Analysis of Information Flow in an IPD-Project Design Organization.”
    in Formoso, C. and Tzortzopoulos, P. (eds.)
    Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 21),
    Fortaleza, Brazil.
  • Steinhaeusser, T., Elezi, F., Tommelein, I.D., and Lindemann, U. (2013). “Management Cybernetics as a Theoretical Basis for Lean Thinking.”
    in Formoso, C. and Tzortzopoulos, P. (eds.)
    Proceedings of the 21st Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC 21),
    Fortaleza, Brazil, pp. 53-62.

2012

  • Arroyo, P., Tommelein, I., and Ballard, G. (2012). “Comparing Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods to Select Sustainable Alternatives in the AEC Industry.” Proc. of the International Conference on Sustainable Design, Engineering, and Construction 2012 (ICSDEC 2012): Developing the Frontier of Sustainable Design, Engineering, and Construction, edited by Wai Kiong Oswald Chong; Jie Gong; Jae Chang; and Mohsin Khalid Siddiqui, Fort Worth, Texas, United States, November 7-9, 2012, pp. 869-876.
  • Arroyo, P., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2012).
    “Deciding a Sustainable Alternative by ‘Choosing by Advantages’ in the
    AEC Industry.” in Tommelein, I.D. and Pasquire, C.L. (eds.) Proceedings
    of the 20th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
    Construction
    , San Diego, CA, Volume I, pp. 41-50.
  • Hicketier, G., Tommelein, I.D. and Gehbauer, F. (2012).
    “Reducing Rework in Design by Comparing Structural Complexity using a
    Multi Domain Matrix.” in Tommelein, I.D. and Pasquire, C.L. (eds.) Proceedings
    of the 20th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
    Construction
    San Diego, CA, Volume I, pp. 171-180.
  • Lee, H.W., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.D. (2012a).
    “Developing a Target Value Design Protocol for Commercial Energy
    Retrofits – PART 1.” Proc. Construction Research
    Congress
    (CRC 2012), ASCE, May 21-23, Purdue University, West
    Lafayette, IN, pp. 1710-1719, online at
    http://rebar.ecn.purdue.edu/crc2012/papers/pdfs/-56.pdf visited 27 May
    2012.
  • Lee, H.W., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.D. (2012b).
    “Developing a Target Value Design Protocol for Commercial Energy
    Retrofits – PART 2.” Proc. Construction Research
    Congress
    (CRC 2012), ASCE, May 21-23, Purdue University, West
    Lafayette, IN, pp. 1720-1729, online at
    http://rebar.ecn.purdue.edu/crc2012/papers/pdfs/-56a.pdf visited 27 May
    2012.
  • Reichardt, T., Elezi, F., Tommelein, I.D., and Lindemann
    (2012). Proceedings of the 14th International Dependency and
    Structure Modelling Conference
    , Japan.
  • Tommelein, I.D. and Gholami, S. (2012). “Root Causes of
    Clashes in Building Information Models (BIM).” in Tommelein, I.D. and
    Pasquire, C.L. (eds.) Proceedings of the 20th Annual
    Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction

    San Diego, CA, Volume I, pp. 121-130.

2011

  • Alarcon, I., Christian, D., and Tommelein, I.D. (2011).
    “Collaborating with a permitting agency to delivery a healthcare
    project: case study of the Sutter Medical Center Castro Valley (SMCCV)”
    Proc. 19th Annual Conference of the International Group
    for Lean Construction
    , Lima, Peru
  • Hickethier, G., Tommelein, I.D., Hofmann, M., Lostuvali,
    B., and Gehbauer, F. (2011). “MDM as a Tool to Improve BIM Development
    Processes.” Proceedings of the 13th International Dependency
    and Structure Modelling Conference
    , DSM’11, Cambridge,
    Massachusetts, USA, September 14-15.
  • Krinner, M., Elezi, F., Tommelein, I.D., and Lindemann, U.
    (2011). “Managing complexity in lean construction design –
    using the MDM methodology to create organizational modularity.” Proceedings
    of the 13th International Dependency and Structure Modelling Conference
    ,
    DSM’11, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, September 14-15.

2010

  • Howell, G., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.D. (2010).
    “Construction Engineering: Reinvigorating the Discipline.” Proc.
    Construction Engineering Conference: Opportunity and Vision for
    Education, Practice, and Research
    , Virginia Tech, September
    30.
  • Furtmeier,
    F., Graebsch, M., Elezi, F., Tommelein, I.D., and Lindemann, U. (2010).
    “MDM as a Process Mapping Tool in Lean Construction.” In Wynn, D.,
    Kreimeyer, M., Eben, K., Maurer, M., Lindemann, U., and Clarkson, P.J.
    (editors). Proceedings 12th International DSM Conference, Cambridge,
    UK, pp. 153-158, 22-23 July, Publisher: Hanser, Munich, ISBN:
    978-3-446-42473-9
  • Furtmeier, F. and Tommelein, I.D. (2010). “Explorative Application of the
    Multi-Domain Matrix Methodology in Lean Design.” Proc. 18th
    Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction
    ,
    Haifa, Israel, July 14-16, 2010
  • Lee,
    H.W., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2010). “Lean Design Management
    in an Infrastructure Design-build Project – A Case Study.” Proc.
    18th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction
    ,
    Haifa, Israel, July 14-16, 2010

2009

  • Feng,
    P.P. and Tommelein, I.D. (2009). “Causes of Rework in California
    Hospital Design and Permitting: Augmenting an Existing Taxonomy.” Proceedings
    17th Annual Conference of the International
    Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC 17), Taipei, Taiwan, 15-17
    July 2009, pp. ##.
  • Feng, P.P., Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2008).
    “Modeling the Effect of an Alternative Review Process: Case Study of a State
    Permitting Agency.” In Ariaratnam, S.T. and Rojas, E.M.
    (2009). Building a Sustainable Future, Volume 2 of
    the Proc. of the 2009 Construction Research Congress (CRC2009), held
    April 5-7 in Seattle, WA, published by ASCE, Reston, VA, pp. 866-875.
  • Friblick, F., Tommelein, I.D., Mueller, E., and Falk, J.H. (2009).
    “Development
    of an Integrated Facade System to improve the High-rise Building
    Process.” Proceedings of the
    17th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction

    (IGLC 17), Taipei, Taiwan , 15-17 July 2009, pp. 13-23.
  • Gupta, A., Tommelein, I.D., and Blume, K. (2009). “Framework for Using
    A3s to Develop Shared Understanding on Projects.” Proceedings
    of the 17th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
    Construction
    (IGLC 17), Taipei, Taiwan, 15-17 July 2009, pp.
    131-142.
  • Hamzeh, F.R., Ballard, G., and
    Tommelein, I.D. (2009). “Is the Last Planner™ System
    Applicable to Design? A Case Study.” Proceedings
    17th Annual Conference of the International
    Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC
    17), Taipei, Taiwan , 15-17 July 2009, pp. 399-410.
  • Koskela, L. and
    Tommelein, I.D. (2009). “The economic theory of
    production conceals opportunities for sustainability improvement.” Proceedings
    17th Annual Conference of the International
    Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC
    17), Taipei, Taiwan , 15-17 July 2009, pp. 269-278.
  • Nguyen, H.V., Lostuvali, B., and
    Tommelein, I.D. (2009). ” Decision Analysis using Virtual First-run Study
    of a Viscous Damping Wall System.” Proceedings
    17th Annual Conference of the International
    Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC
    17), Taipei, Taiwan , 15-17 July 2009, pp. 25-35.
  • Parrish,
    K. and Tommelein, I.D. (2009). “Making Design Decisions Using Choosing by Advantages.” Proceedings
    17th Annual Conference of the International
    Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC
    17), Taipei, Taiwan , 15-17 July 2009, pp. 535-544.
  • Parrish, K., Tommelein, I.D., and
    Ballard, G. (2009).
    “Use of A3 Reports to Focus Design and Construction Conversations.” In
    Ariaratnam, S.T. and Rojas, E.M. (2009). Building a
    Sustainable Future
    , Volume 1 of the Proc. of the 2009
    Construction Research Congress (CRC2009), held April 5-7 in Seattle,
    WA, published by ASCE, Reston, VA, pp. 360-369.
  • Tommelein,
    I.D. (2009). “Lean Construction Means to Promote Good- and Eradicate
    Bad Variation.” Keynote paper presented at the Third
    International Conference on Construction Engineering and Management

    (ICCEM) and the Sixth International Conference on
    Construction Project Management
    (ICCPM) (http://www.iccem-iccpm.org/),
    May 27-29, 2009, Jeju, Korea (not peer reviewed).
  • Tuholski, S.J. and Tommelein, I.D. (2009).
    “Structural Design Iteration: the Application of DSM to Seismic Retrofit.”
    In Ariaratnam, S.T. and Rojas, E.M. (2009). Building a
    Sustainable Future
    , Volume 2 of the Proc. of the 2009
    Construction Research Congress (CRC2009), held April 5-7 in Seattle,
    WA, published by ASCE, Reston, VA, pp. 1048-1057.
  • Wong, J.-M., Parrish, K., Tommelein, I.D., and
    Stojadinovic, B. (2009). “A Computer Tool to aid in set-based design.” Proceedings
    17th Annual Conference of the International
    Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC
    17), Taipei, Taiwan , 15-17 July 2009, pp. 202-211.

2008

ABSTRACT: This paper describes
collaboration efforts of a project team that implemented lean concepts
in the course of structural system selection during the design phase of
a hospital project. Out-of-the-box thinking, contractual incentives for
team work, early collaboration, and a set-based design approach led to
the development of an innovative and cost-effective structural system
that may set precedent for other medical facilities to be constructed
in seismically active zones. The structural design team on this project
rigorously explored the design space and tested design alternatives
against project value propositions. When pushed by the owner to think
more broadly, the structural engineer proposed using a new technology,
namely viscous damping walls. This concept was developed in Japan but
has not yet been tried on projects in the United States. Because it is
a first, this solution requires not only rigorous analysis and testing
by the structural engineer but also detailed investigation by the
state’s regulatory agency that issues building permits. This paper
describes the team’s efforts at defining the design space and the
set-based design approach they used. A key lesson from this case study
is that teams have a lot to learn about how to make requests and
commitments while pursuing set-based design to be lean.

2007

  • Wong, J.M.,
    Parrish, K., Tommelein, I.D. and Stojadinovic, B. (2007).
    “Communication and Process
    Simulation of Set-Based Design for Concrete Reinforcement.” in
    Henderson, S.G., Biller,
    B., Hsieh, M.-H., Shortle,
    J., Tew, J.D., and Barton, R.R. (eds.), Proceedings of the 2007
    Winter Simulation Conference
    , 9-12 December 2007, Washington,
    D.C.

    ABSTRACT: Two discrete-event
    simulations are developed to assess
    the feasibility of improving the delivery process of reinforced
    concrete structures. The simulations represent the
    resource and information flows necessary for supporting
    set-based design of reinforcing bars used in concrete. Setbased
    design enables the exploration of feasible solutions
    for longer in the design process than is otherwise affordable
    using point-based design, so as to allow for input from
    several project participants early on and at the same time.
    The simulations use the canonical example of selecting
    longitudinal reinforcement for a beam-column joint. The
    first simulation uses EZStrobe© to model the amount of
    time necessary to converge to a satisfactory design solution
    using set-based vs. point-based design methods. The
    second simulation uses XML data exchange and state machines
    in a service-based architecture to analyze the required
    information flows for communicating design sets.
    This enables the exploration of a meta-language to express
    design goals.
  • Hamzeh, F., Tommelein, I.D., Ballard, G., and Kaminsky, P.
    (2007). “Logistics Centers to Support Project-based Production in the
    Construction Industry.” in Pasquire, C.L. and Tzortzopoulos, P.
    (editors)(2007). Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of
    the International Group
    for Lean Construction
    (IGLC 15), 18-20 July 2007,
    East Lansing, MI.

    ABSTRACT: With the advancement of
    information technology and increased market competition, construction
    companies are driven to employ supply chain management strategies to
    seek competitive advantage. Managing logistics is one component at the
    core of such strategies. An effective logistics system ensures delivery
    of the right products and services to the right customers at the right
    time while minimizing costs and rewarding all participants based on
    value added to the supply chain. As a component of a logistics system,
    logistics centres can serve the construction industry by offering
    services such as: storage, transport, distribution, assembly, kitting,
    consolidation, sorting, breaking bulk, cross-docking, and e-commerce.
    This paper focuses on the role logistics centres may play and the
    impact they may have on construction supply chains. Construction
    companies may configure their logistics centres in different ways to
    match their global and local supply chain strategy, while addressing
    challenges posed by variation in demand and supply for material,
    equipment, and services. A hypothesis is that logistics centres are
    underused in this industry, yet may offer considerable advantage. The
    ultimate aim of the research that is reported on here is developing a
    logistics system to support project-based production needs. The authors
    present a simulation model of a logistic centre that supports multiple
    site stores on different construction projects facing variations in
    supply lead times. The objective of the simulation is to find an
    approach to reduce material management costs while avoiding resource
    shortages, and enhancing both reliability and responsiveness of the
    supply chain.
  • Mikati, S., Roller, T., Tommelein, I.D., and Khanzode, A.
    (2007). “Priority Conversations: A Case Study On Priority Walls.” in
    Pasquire, C.L. and Tzortzopoulos, P. (editors)(2007). Proceedings
    of the 15th Annual Conference of the
    International Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC
    15), 18-20 July 2007, East Lansing, MI.

    ABSTRACT: This paper presents and
    analyzes work structuring and collaboration
    efforts of the general contractor and specialty contractors working
    together as
    a team to implement lean practices during construction of a medical
    facility. We
    describe the team’s focus specifically on ‘priority
    walls’ as a driver for
    coordinating work among contractors. We then elaborate on the tools the
    team
    used to support their language (“priority conversations”) and action,
    as well
    as on the successes and failures of their approach. Success of this
    effort
    stems from the team’s willingness to experiment, collaborate,
    and learn; use of
    an owner-provided incentive sharing plan; and other lean practices
    including use
    of the ‘big room’ (‘oba’ or
    ‘oobeya’ in Japanese), development of a Building
    Information Model (BIM) that allowed for integration and coordination
    of
    trade-specific design details, promotion of reliable planning, as well
    as use
    of standardization combined with offsite fabrication and assembly. The
    paper
    illustrates how this combination of lean practices changed the nature
    of the
    conversation specialists have in the course of development of a project
    and yielded
    value to all project participants as well as to the project as a whole.

    This paper was shortened and then reprinted by Tradeline:

    • Mikati, S., Roller, T., Tommelein, I.D., and Khanzode,
      A. (2007). “Contractors Work as a Team to Implement Lean Construction
      Practices: ‘Priority Conversations,’ Use of ‘Big Room,’ and Willingness
      to Experiment Facilitate Efforts” Online at
      http://www.tradelineinc.com/content/28831/display/x70jgb
      ,
      November.
  • Parrish, K., Wong, J.-M., Tommelein, I.D. and Stojadinovic,
    B. (2007). “Proof-of-Concept of Set-Based Design for Reinforced
    Concrete Structures.” in Pasquire, C.L. and Tzortzopoulos, P.
    (editors)(2007). Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of
    the International Group
    for Lean Construction
    (IGLC 15), 18-20 July 2007,
    East Lansing, MI.

    ABSTRACT: To explore the feasibility of improving the delivery process of reinforced concrete, we focus in this paper on reinforcing bars (rebar) used in cast-in-place (CIP) concrete. Specifically, we describe the methodology for set-based design of rebar that we are pursuing in an ongoing research effort. Set-based design makes it possible to maintain feasible solutions for longer in the design process than is otherwise affordable using point-based design. It thereby allows for input from several project participants at the same time and early on, as well as throughout project delivery. Set-based communication helps participants avoid rework and through teamwork develop a more globally satisfactory design solution than would otherwise be the case. To illustrate the methodology, we examine the canonical example of reinforcement at a beam-column joint and study the relationships between those who design the joint and those who fabricate and install it: mainly the structural engineer, the fabricator, and the rebar placer. The set-based approach for concrete design is promising. It warrants further effort in characterizing sets at different levels of abstraction and in articulating what different participants value, both of which are needed for sets to be narrowed effectively and for the process to lead to a solution.

2006

  • Alves, T.D.C.L. and Tommelein, I.D. (2006). “Simulation
    as a Tool for Production System Design in Construction.
    Proc. 14th Conference of the
    International Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC14),
    25-27 July 2006, Santiago, Chile, 10 pages, 341-353.

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the authors discuss the concepts of variability, buffers, and batches, as well as the interactions between them. The discussion aims at contributing to the identification of factors that impact production systems design, which includes the definition of buffer locations, buffer profiles, batch sizes, etc. The authors use a simulation model developed using STROBOSCOPE to represent five different scenarios for planning, fabrication, shipping, and installation of sheet metal ductwork in order to illustrate how production system design choices may affect the lead time needed to deliver a project. The data used to develop the model was obtained from time studies performed by the authors as well as from interviews conducted with field superintendents. In order to develop the model, the authors needed basic information about activities pertaining to the delivery of sheet metal ductwork. Modeled durations and quantities are approximations based on the data collected. The model highlights the need for and importance of reliable data when designing production systems and simulation models thereof. Effort needs to be put in by the construction industry and researchers to gather more representative sets of data that can be used to design production systems.
  • Alves,
    T.D.C.L. and Tommelein, I.D. (2006). “Investigation
    of Buffer Dynamics in Sheet Metal Ductwork Supply Chains.
    Proc. 14th Conference of the
    International Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC14),
    25-27 July 2006, Santiago, Chile, 10 pages, 309-315.

    ABSTRACT: The model discussed in this paper represents the interactions between design changes, site work, and fabrication shop work for make-to-order products. Being qualitative in nature, it serves as a basis for discussing how inventory and buffers are created in the Sheet Metal Ductwork Supply Chain due to changes in design and installation sequences. The authors chose to model changes in schedule and design because industry practitioners indicated that these are the main causes for variations that disrupt contractors’ work flow. The authors highlight selected feedback links between activities to discuss the implications of communication, timing of demand, and product standardization vs. customization. A number of insights into the model can be abstracted to other supply chains in construction. Other supply chains in construction (e.g., electrical systems, architectural components, precast concrete) can benefit from the analysis as presented.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (2006). “Process
    Benefits from Use of Standard Products – Simulation Experiments using
    the Pipe Spool Model.
    Proc. 14th Conference of the
    International Group for Lean Construction
    (IGLC14),
    25-27 July 2006, Santiago, Chile, 177-189.

    ABSTRACT: Construction materials management and supply chain management are challenging not in the least because of the sheer number and variety of types of materials being assembled in any one project. Uniqueness of materials increases system complexity. This raises the question addressed in this paper: How may the use of increasing numbers of a standard product affect production system performance? To answer this question, we build on the pipe-spool model with ‘matching problems’ that was presented at the IGLC in 1997 but we study parameters that are different from those studied previously to illustrate how management practices may affect a production system’s behavior. Specifically, we show how the use of standard products alleviates the matching problem. Computer-based discrete-event simulation is known to be a useful tool to describe how lean systems may be designed and metrics applied to analyze their performance. Accordingly, we use simulation experiments to illustrate the relationship between the use of various numbers of standard products and process execution. As shown, small numbers of standard products result in some reduction of the project duration, but increasing numbers benefit the system disproportionately more. Using lessons learned from this experiment combined with other observations based on theory and practice, we provide directions for follow-on research and recommendations for managers to design their project-based production systems by exploiting product standardization opportunities.

2005

  • Alves,
    T.D.C.L. and Tommelein, I.D. (2005). “Investigation of the Sheet Metal
    Ductwork Supply Chain: Current Practices and Opportunities for
    Improvement.” Simposio
    Brasileiro de Gestao e Economia da Construcao, Encontro
    Latino-americano de Gestao e Economia da Construcao
    , October 24-26, Porte Alegre,
    Brasil, 10 pages.
  • Alves,
    T.D.C.L. Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (2005). “Value
    Stream Mapping for Make-to-order Products in a Job Shop Environment.

    Proc. Construction Research Congress, held in San Diego, CA, 5-7 April 2005, published on
    CD ROM by ASCE, Reston, VA,
    10 pages.
  • Graham, D., Smith, S.D., and Tommelein, I.D. (2005). “Cost
    of Concrete Placement for Contractors.” Proc. 21st Annual
    Conference and Annual General Meeting of the Association of Researchers
    in Construction Management
    (ARCOM), Soas,
    London, UK,
    7-9 September, 10 pages.
  • Graham, D., Tommelein, I.D., and Smith, S.D. (2005). “Cost
    Reduction through Vertical Integration of the In-situ Concrete Supply
    Chain.” Proc. 21st Annual Conference and Annual General
    Meeting of the Association of Researchers in Construction Management

    (ARCOM), Soas, London, UK,
    7-9 September, 10 pages.
  • Kaplan, H., Elburg,
    A., and Tommelein, I.D. (2005). “Analysis
    of Variability in Precasting and Installation of Pile Foundations.

    Proc. Construction Research Congress, held in San Diego, CA, 5-7 April 2005, published on
    CD ROM by ASCE, Reston, VA,
    10 pages.

    ABSTRACT: This
    paper presents a study on the use of pre-stressed precast foundation
    piles
    using data collected on a building project that comprised the
    installation of
    more than 340 piles. The objective is to assess the presence of product
    and
    process variability in demand and supply, and the impact it has on
    precast pile
    delivery. Sources of variability in precasting, transportation, and
    installation are described. As a step towards understanding the
    complexity of
    this production system and to show how production planning decisions
    affect
    execution, this paper elaborates on two deterministic scenarios and
    compares
    those with actual data from the project. Performance of the system is
    analyzed
    on the basis of inventory vs. work completed. From the perspective of
    ‘lean’
    thinking the paper then identifies sources of waste and suggests means
    to
    eliminate them. It also presents questions for follow-on research.
  • Milberg, C. and Tommelein, I.D. (2005). “Application
    of Tolerance Mapping in AEC Systems.
    Proc.
    Construction Research Congress
    , held in San Diego, CA, 5-7 April 2005, published on
    CD ROM by ASCE, Reston, VA,
    10 pages, available for download at http://ascelibrary.org/doi/pdf/10.1061/40754%28183%29113.

    ABSTRACT: Tolerance
    maps are a tool for specifying, analyzing and allocating tolerances for
    both
    product and process design. This paper introduces the
    authors’ tolerance
    mapping system and the steps for creating and implementing the system
    to an
    existing design for evaluation and improvement, via a sample case. The
    paper
    addresses current industry limitations on tolerances, future mapping
    improvements, and mapping implementation challenges.
  • Tommelein, I.D. and Ballard, G. (2005). “Restructuring
    the Rebar Supply System.
    Proc. Construction
    Research Congress
    , held in San
    Diego, CA,
    5-7 April 2005, published on CD ROM by ASCE, Reston, VA,
    10 pages.

    ABSTRACT: The rebar supply system includes all the organizations involved in the manufacturing, design, procurement, fabrication, transport, installation, inspection and regulation of reinforcing steel. It also includes their relationships and their processes. That system is highly fragmented and sub-optimized; it needs to be restructured. An industry task force, formed to support the authors’ research, characterized the current state of the system in terms of adversarial relations, low pay, and failure to learn from project-to-project. No one is making an adequate profit, low fees constrain designers from full exercise of their professional capabilities, and drawing quality and design constructability are declining. The task force also proposed a vision of the future state, identified obstacles to its realization and generated basic strategies for overcoming those obstacles. This paper describes these task force outputs and develops its strategies into a plan for reforming the rebar supply system.

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

  • Tommelein, I.D. (1999). “Travel-Time
    Simulation to Locate and Staff Temporary Facilities Under Changing
    Construction Demand.
    Winter Simulation Conference
    (WSC’99), 5-8 December, Phoenix, Arizona,
    978-984.

    ABSTRACT: Temporary
    facilities on construction sites are needed to support the labor force
    during
    the course of their work. Rules of thumb traditionally have been used
    to decide
    on the location and capacity of those facilities, but the demand for
    support is
    project dependent and changes as construction progresses at a rate
    specific to
    each trade discipline. This paper presents a more systematic method for
    facility location and capacity sizing based on travel-time simulation.
    Actual
    site circumstances, including the location of a temporary facility
    relative to
    the location of the workers as well as workers’ needs, travel, and
    service time
    are taken into account. The objective is to identify the best location
    on site
    for temporary facilities on a project-by-project basis. When real-time
    data
    becomes available as construction progresses, it can be incorporated in
    the
    model to generate even more realistic output. Tool-room location is
    used as an
    illustration. The presented simulation model yields data to assess how
    much
    travel and wait time is tolerable compared to the cost of increasing
    the
    capacity of the support facility or providing service at additional
    locations.
  • Gil, N., Tommelein, I.D., Miles, R.S., Ballard, G., and Kirkendall, R.L. (1999).
    “Integrated Product-Process Development Model To
    Support Design-Build.” in Hannus,
    M., Salonen, M., and Kazi, A.S. (editors, August
    1999). Concurrent Engineering in Construction: Challenges for
    the New Millenium
    ,
    CIB Publication 236, Proc.
    Second International Conference on Concurrent Engineering in
    Construction (CEC99)
    , organised
    by CIB TG33 and VTT Building Technology, 25-27 August, Espoo, Finland, 367-376.
  • Hyun Jeong Choo and Iris D. Tommelein
    (1999). “Space
    Scheduling using Flow Analysis
    .” in Tommelein, I.D. (editor),
    Proc. Seventh Annual Conference of the International Group
    for Lean Construction
    (IGLC-7), 26-28 July, held in Berkeley,
    CA, USA,
    299-311.
  • Iris D. Tommelein and Annie En Yi Li (1999). “Just-in-Time
    Concrete Delivery: Mapping Alternatives for Vertical Supply Chain
    Integration
    .” in Tommelein, I.D. (editor), Proc.
    Seventh Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
    Construction
    (IGLC-7), 26-28 July, held in Berkeley, CA, USA,
    97-108.
  • Iris D. Tommelein and Markus Weissenberger
    (1999). “More
    Just-in-Time: Location of Buffers in Structural Steel Supply and
    Construction Processes
    .” in Tommelein, I.D. (editor), Proc.
    Seventh Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean
    Construction
    (IGLC-7), 26-28 July, held in Berkeley, CA, USA,
    109-120.

1998

  • Choo, H.J.,
    Tommelein, I.D., Ballard, G., and Zabelle,
    T.R. (1998). “WorkPlan Database for Work
    Package Production Scheduling.
    Proc. Sixth Annual
    Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction

    (IGLC-6), 13-15 August held in Guaruja,
    Brazil,
    12 pp.
  • Tommelein, I.D., Riley, D., and Howell, G.A. (1998). “Parade
    Game: Impact of Work Flow Variability on Succeeding Trade Performance.

    Proc. Sixth Annual Conference of the International Group
    for Lean Construction
    , IGLC-6, 13-15
    August held in Guaruja, Brazil,
    14 pp.
  • Choo, H.J.,
    Tommelein, I.D., Ballard, G., and Zabelle,
    T.R. (1998). “Constraint-Based Database for Work Package Scheduling.” Proc.
    Computing Congress ’98
    , ASCE, pp. 169-180; also Technical
    Report No. 98-1
    , Construction Engineering and Management
    Program, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of
    California, Berkeley, CA.
  • Sadonio, M.,
    Tommelein, I.D., and Zabelle, T.R. (1998).

    The LAST DESIGNER’S Database-CAD for Sourcing, Procurement, and
    Planning.
    Proc. Computing Congress ’98,
    ASCE, pp. 364-375; also Technical Report No. 98-2,
    Construction Engineering and Management Program, Civil and
    Environmental Engineering Department, University of California,
    Berkeley, CA.
  • Tommelein, I.D. and Chua, D.K.H. (1998). “Management of
    Design Detailing Process: Key to Specialty-Contractor Performance.” Proc.
    Computing Congress ’98
    , ASCE, pp. 61-72; also Technical
    Report No. 98-3
    , Construction Engineering and Management
    Program, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of
    California, Berkeley, CA.

1997

  • Tommelein, I.D. (1997). “Using Palm-Top Computers in
    Teaching Materials Management.” Proceedings Construction
    Congress V
    , Oct. 5-7 in Minneapolis,
    MN, ASCE, NY,
    NY,
    405-413.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1997). “Models of Lean Construction
    Processes: Example of Pipe-Spool Materials Management.” Proceedings
    Construction Congress V
    , Oct. 5-7 in Minneapolis,
    MN, ASCE, NY,
    NY,
    156-164.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1997). “Discrete-event
    Simulation of Lean Construction Processes.
    Proc.
    Fifth Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction
    ,
    IGLC-5, 16-17 July 1997 at Griffith University-Gold Coast Campus, Gold
    Coast, Queensland, Australia, 121-135.

1996

  • Riley, D.R. and Tommelein, I.D. (1996). “Space Planning
    Tools for Multi-story Construction.” Proc. 3rd Congress on
    Computing in Civil Engineering
    , Vanegas
    J. and Chinowsky, P.
    (eds.), ASCE, New York, NY, 718-724.

1995

  • Tommelein, I.D. (1995). “New Tools for Site Materials
    Handling and Layout Control.” Proc. Construction Congress ’95,
    Ibbs, C.W. (editor),
    ASCE, New
    York, NY,
    479-486.
  • Dzeng, R.J.
    and Tommelein, I.D. (1995) “Case-based Scheduling Using Product
    Models.” Proc. Second Congress on Computing in Civil
    Engineering
    , Atlanta, GA, 5-8 June 1995, ASCE, New York, NY,
    163-170.

1994

  • Tommelein, I.D., Carr, R.I.,
    and Odeh, A.M. (1994). “Knowledge-Based
    Assembly of Simulation Networks Using Construction Designs, Plans, and
    Methods.
    Proceedings 1994 Winter Simulation
    Conference
    , December 11-14, 1145-1152.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1994). “MoveCapPlan:
    An Integrated System for Planning and Controlling Construction Material
    Laydown and
    Handling.” ASCE, Proc. 1st Computing Congress,
    ASCE, New
    York, NY,
    1172-1179.
  • Zouein, P.P.
    and Tommelein, I.D. (1994). “Time-Space Tradeoff Strategies For Space-Schedule Construction.”
    ASCE, Proc. 1st Computing Congress, ASCE, New York,
    NY,
    1180-1187.
  • Dzeng, R.J.
    and Tommelein, I.D. (1994). “Case Storage of Planning Knowledge for
    Power Plant Construction.” ASCE, Proc. 1st Computing Congress,
    ASCE, New
    York, NY,
    293-300.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1994). “Materials Handling and Site Layout
    Control.” Proc. 11th ISARC, 24-26 May in Brighton,
    U.K.,
    in Chamberlain, D.A. (1994). Automation and Robotics in Construction
    XI, Elsevier Science Publishers, 297-304.
  • Tommelein, I.D. and Dzeng,
    R.J. (1994). “Automated Case-Based Scheduling for Power Plant Boiler
    Erection.” Proc. 11th ISARC, 24-26 May in Brighton,
    U.K.,
    in Chamberlain, D.A. (1994). Automation and Robotics in
    Construction XI
    , Elsevier Science Publishers, 179-186.
  • Zouein, P.P.
    and Tommelein, I.D. (1994). “Automating Dynamic Layout Construction.” Proc.
    11th ISARC
    , 24-26 May in Brighton, U.K.,
    in Chamberlain, D.A. (1994). Automation and Robotics in
    Construction XI
    , Elsevier Science Publishers, 409-416.

1993

  • Tommelein, I.D. (1993). “Planning and Controlling On-site
    Materials Handling through Space Scheduling.” EPRI 3rd
    International Fossil Plant Construction Conference
    , 26-28
    Oct. 93 in Palm
    Beach, Florida
    (invited paper).
  • Tommelein, I.D. and Dzeng,
    R.J. (1993). “Product Modeling to Structure a Case Library for
    Case-based Construction Planning.” Proc. 1st Intl. Conf. on
    the Management of Information Technology in Construction
    ,
    Aug. 17-20, Singapore,
    CIB W-78.

    ABSTRACT: The
    conceptual design of a case-based planner, named CasePlan,
    is presented to plan and schedule construction activities by comparing
    a new
    facility with those described in cases, and adapting the selected
    cases’ plans
    to suit the new construction needs. For effective case retrieval and
    new case
    indexing, CasePlan
    relies on a product model, that
    describes a prototypical power plant facility.
    Each construction product in a project is a specialization of this
    product
    model. A library of construction techniques and methods is also related
    to this
    product model. This well-structured organization of detail enables CasePlan to construct executable
    project plans. This is in
    contrast to most other artificial-intelligence based planners that
    generate
    only least-commitment plans, which must be detailed further manually. CasePlan thus exploits the power
    provided by a
    well-structured model to capture human expertise in design and
    construction
    planning cases, and demonstrates how such a product model can
    effectively be
    used. A operational
    prototype of CasePlan
    is currently being developed.
  • Tommelein, I.D., Dzeng, R.J., and Zouein, P.P.
    (1993). “Exchanging Layout and Schedule Data in a Real-Time Distributed
    Environment.” Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on Computing in Civil and
    Building Engrg.
    ,
    June 7-9, Anaheim, Calif., ASCE, New York, NY, 947-954.

    ABSTRACT: Unpredictable site conditions and unforeseen changes in construction work may result in inefficiencies due to a shortage of work space and difficult access to critical areas on site. This hampers productivity. Detailed advance planning of site space use over time and reorganization of the work may alleviate these inefficiencies.
    An interactive decision support tool is presented that loosely integrates layout with resource scheduling to make it easier to plan operations for which timing and space use are critical. Layouts for consecutive time frames, which together span the duration of construction, are created one at a time by the user. When a layout is identified as problematic because of spatial conflict, the user calls upon the scheduler to remedy the problem by delaying activities, changing resource allocation levels or resource types. The modified schedule is returned to the user who then proceeds with the layout task.The architecture and operation of this tool are described. A first version has been implemented. It brings to bear key issues in space-time-cost trade-off and provides a test bed for experimentation with real-time distributed computing for site materials management. Tools like the one presented here allow for better advance planning that leads to improved field productivity.
  • Dzeng, R.Y. and Tommelein, I.D. (1993). “Using Product Models to Plan Construction.” Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on Computing in Civil and Building Engrg., June 7-9, Anaheim, Calif., ASCE, New York, NY, 1778-1785.
  • Zouein, P.P.
    and Tommelein, I.D. (1993). “Space Schedule Construction.” Proc.
    5th Intl. Conf. on Computing in Civil and Building Engrg.
    , June 7-9,
    Anaheim, Calif., ASCE, New York, NY, 1770-1777.
  • Tommelein,
    I.D. and Zouein, P.P. (1993). “Space Scheduling for
    Construction Progress Planning and Control.” Proc. 10th ISARC,
    in Watson, G.H., Tucker, R.L., and Walters, J.K. (eds.), Automation
    and Robotics in Construction X
    , Elsevier Science Publishers,
    415-422.

    ABSTRACT: Space
    scheduling pertains to allocating work space to resources associated
    with
    activities in a schedule as it changes over time. This is an important
    aspect
    of materials management in dynamic environments in which many pieces of
    equipment, crews, and possibly robots move about, as congestion and
    interference would seriously hamper production. Advance space
    scheduling is
    then warranted to reduce the need for real-time sensing and adjusting.
    Reactive
    space scheduling may be needed when problems have arisen and must be
    alleviated. In any case, space-schedule data must be made available in
    a timely
    fashion to all parties who need it. The MovePlan
    model for dynamic layout planning is described to illustrate the
    overall
    significance of space scheduling to construction progress planning. MovePlan uses a two-dimensional
    representation of space to
    keep the computational costs associated with space-time calculations
    low.
    Accordingly, the model does not require a powerful workstation, but
    runs on a
    laptop computer—and is expected to run on a
    palmtop—that could
    easily be taken out into the field. MovePlan
    has been
    loosely integrated with a space-schedule conflict resolver,
    named ConRes, which
    delays activities or changes
    their resource needs to lower the demand for space in so-called
    problematic
    time intervals. Issues pertaining to data collection for space
    scheduling,
    scheduling progress control, and data dissemination are discussed. A
    futuristic
    scenario is presented to illustrate the use of palmtop computing for
    space
    scheduling on site.
  • Chang,
    S.C.,
    Adriaens, P.,
    Tommelein, I.D., and Vogel, T.M. (1993). “Development of a
    Knowledge-based Bioremediation Adviser.” Symp.
    on Bioremediation of
    Hazardous Wastes: Research, Development, and Field Evaluations
    .
    EPA/600/R-93/054, 221-223, May.

1992

  • Runkel,
    J.T., Birmingham,
    W.P., Darr, T.P.,
    Maxim, B.R., and Tommelein, I.D. (1992). “Domain Independent Design
    System: Environment for Rapid Prototyping of Configuration Design
    Systems.” in J.S. Gero
    (ed.) Proc. 2nd International Conference on Artif. Intell.
    in Design
    , AID 92, 22-25 June, Pittsburgh, PA, Kluwer Acad. Pub., Dordrecht, the Netherlands,
    21-40.

    ABSTRACT: This
    paper describes the Domain-Independent Design System (DIDS). DIDS
    provides a
    set of tools capable of rapidly constructing configuration-design
    systems from
    a library of reusable software elements, called mechanisms. The power
    of DIDS
    comes from its model of configuration design that enables reusable
    mechanism to
    be identified. DIDS contains four components. The first component, the
    Problem-Solving-Method (PSM) Editor builds PSMs
    by
    combining mechanisms. The Code Generator, DIDS’s
    second component, generates a problem solver from the PSM description
    created
    in the editor. The third component, the Knowledge-Acquisition Tool
    Generator
    builds a knowledge acquisition (KA) tool that interviews the domain
    expert to
    gather the knowledge required by the DIDS-generated problem solver. The
    final
    component, the Debugging Tool, monitors the execution of the problem
    solver to
    uncover errors made during KA, and to improve the performance of the
    design
    tool. This paper presents a scenario demonstrating how DIDS will be
    used to
    build configuration systems.
  • Maxim, B., Balkany,
    A., Birmingham,
    W.P., Darr, T.P., Runkel, J.T., and Tommelein,
    I.D. (1992). “Prototyping Knowledge-based Design Systems in an
    Object-Oriented Environment.” The Soc. for Computer Simulation, and
    Object Management Group, Proc. Intl. Conf. on Object-Oriented
    Mfrg. Systems
    ,
    ICOOMS ’92, May 4-6, 55-59, Univ. of Calgary, Canada.
  • Tommelein, I.D., Castillo, J.G., and Zouein, P.P. (1992). “Space-Time
    Characterization for Resource Management on Construction Sites.” in
    B.J. Goodno and J.R.
    Wright (eds.) Proc. 8th Conf. on Computing in Civil
    Engineering
    , 7-9 June, Dallas, TX, ASCE, New York, NY,
    1042-1049.
  • Odeh, A.M.,
    Tommelein, I.D., and Carr, R.I.
    (1992). “Knowledge-Based Simulation of Construction Plans.” in B.J. Goodno and J.R. Wright (eds.) Proc.
    8th Conf. on Computing in Civil Engineering
    , 7-9 June,
    Dallas, TX, ASCE, New York, NY, 623-630.
  • Tommelein,
    I.D. and Zouein, P.P. (1992). “Activity-Level Space
    Scheduling.” Proc. Ninth International Symposium on
    Automation and Robotics in Construction
    , ISARC 92, June 3-5,
    Tokyo, Japan, sponsored by Japan Industrial Robot Assoc., JIRA, Tokyo,
    Japan, 411-420.
  • Zouein, P.P.
    and Tommelein, I.D. (1992). “MovePlan:
    Allocating Space During
    Scheduling.” Proc. CIB 92 World Building Congress,
    18-22 May, Montreal, Quebec, Natl. Research Council Ottawa, Canada,
    608-609.

1991

  • Odeh, A.M.,
    Tommelein, I.D., and Carr, R.I.
    (1991). “Using design drawings and project plans to construct
    discrete-event simulation networks.” Proc. 8th Intl. Symp. on Automation and Robotics
    in Construction
    , ISARC 91, Vol. 1, 419-428, Fraunhofer Institute for
    Manufacturing Engineering and Automation, Verein
    zur Foerderung produktionstechnischer Forschung, Stuttgart, Germany.
  • Balkany, A.,
    Birmingham,
    W. P., and Tommelein, I.D. (1991). “A Knowledge-level Analysis of
    Several Design Tools.” Proc. First Intl. Conf. on Artif. Intell.
    in Design
    , AID 91, Edinburgh, UK, 25-27 June, 921-940, also
    Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Civil Engrg.,
    Research Report No. 90-24.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1991). “Site layout: Where should it go?”
    in Preparing for Constr.
    in the 21st Century, Proc. Constr.
    Congr. 91
    ,
    Cambridge, Mass., ASCE, New York,
    NY,
    632-637.

1990 and prior
years

  • Tommelein, I.D., Levitt,
    R.E., and Hayes-Roth, B. (1989). “SightPlan:
    an Artificial Intelligence Tool to Assist Construction Managers with
    Site Layout.” Proc. 6th Intl. Symp.
    on Automation and Robotics in Construction
    , ISARC 89, San
    Francisco, CA, 6-8 June, 340-347.
  • Tommelein, I.D., Levitt,
    R.E., and Hayes-Roth, B. (1987). “Using Expert Systems for the Layout
    of Temporary Facilities on Construction Sites.” Proc. C.I.B.
    W-65, The Organization and Management of Construction, 5th Intl. Symp.
    , London, U.K., Sept. 7-10, in Lansley, P.R., Harlow, P.A.
    (eds.): Managing Construction Worldwide, Vol. 1, Systems for Managing
    Construction, 566-577, E.&F.N.
    Spon, London,
    U.K.
  • Tommelein, I.D., Johnson, M.V. Jr., Hayes-Roth, B., and Levitt, R.E. (1987). “SIGHTPLAN:
    A Blackboard Expert System for Construction Site Layout.” Proc.
    I.F.I.P. Working Conf. 5.2
    , Sydney,
    Australia,
    Feb. 17-20, published in: J.S. Gero
    (ed.): Expert Systems in Computer-Aided Design, North-Holland, Amsterdam,
    153-167.
  • De Wilde, W.P., Mollaert,
    M., and Tommelein, I.
    (1986). “Some Problems Encountered in the Use of Composite Materials
    and Textiles in Cable-Stayed Membrane Structures.” Proc.
    I.A.S.S. Symposium
    , Osaka,
    Japan,
    Sept. 15-19, published in Heki,
    K. (ed.): Shells, Membranes and Space Frames, Vol.
    2, 185-192, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

Book Chapters

  • Tommelein,
    I.D., Ballard, G., and Kaminsky, P. (2009). “Supply Chain Management
    for Lean Project Delivery.” Chapter 6 in O’Brien, W.J., Formoso, C.T.,
    Vrijhoef, R., and London, K.A. (eds.) Construction Supply
    Chain Management Handbook
    . CRC Press, Taylor &
    Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.

  • Gil,
    N., Beckman, S., and Tommelein, I.D. (2007). “Operationalizing the Open
    Building Approach in Large-Scale Infrastructure Projects.” Chapter 12
    in Kazi, A.S., Hannus, M., Boudjabeur, S., and Malone, A. (2007). Open
    Building Manufacturing: Core Concepts and Industrial Requirements
    ,
    published by ManuBuild in collab. with VTT Technical Research Center of
    Finland, pp. 217-236. ISBN 978-951-38-6352-4 (print) and ISBN
    978-951-38-6353-1 (electronic)

  • Hershauer,
    J.C., Walsh, K.D., and Tommelein, I.D. (2005). “Exploring the Multiple
    Perspectives that Exist Regarding Supply Chains.” Chapter in Applications
    of Supply Chain Management and E-Commerce.
    by Geunes,
    J., Akcali, E., Pardalos, P.M., Romeijn, H.E., and Shen, Z.J.
    (2005)(Editors), Springer. HD38.5A67 2005.

  • Tommelein, I.D.
    (2003). “Acknowledging Variability and Uncertainty in Product and
    Process Development.” Chapter in Issa,
    R.R.A., Flood, I., and O’Brien, W.J. (editors) 4D CAD and
    Visualization in Construction: Developments and Applications
    ,
    A.A. Balkema
    Publishers, ISBN 90 5809 354 9, pp. 165-193.

  • Ballard, G.,
    Tommelein, I., Koskela, L., and Howell, G.
    (2002). “Lean Construction Tools and Techniques.” Chapter 15 in Rick
    Best and Gerard de Valence (editors, 2002). Design and
    Construction: Building in Value
    . Butterworth-Heinemann,
    Elsevier Science Ltd, pp. 227-255. TH153.D4723

  • Koskela,
    L., Howell, G., Ballard, G., and Tommelein, I.
    (2002). “The Foundations of Lean Construction.” Chapter 14 in Rick Best
    and Gerard de Valence (editors, 2002). Design and
    Construction: Building in Value
    . Butterworth-Heinemann,
    Elsevier Science Ltd, pp. 211-226. TH153.D4723

  • Levitt,
    R.E., Tommelein, I.D., Hayes-Roth, B., and Confrey,
    T. (1999). “SightPlan
    Experiments: Alternate Strategies for Site Layout Design.” Chapter 1 in
    Kunz, J. (editor)(1999). Integrated
    Facility Engineering.
    in
    progress.

  • Tommelein, I.D.
    (co-author)(1997). “SightPlan: a Case Study of BB1.”
    Section 5.5.1 in Sriram,
    R.D. (1997). Intelligent Systems for Engineering: A
    Knowledge-Based Approach.
    Springer Verlag,
    London,
    U.K.

  • Tommelein, I.D.
    (1996). “Introduction.” Chapter 1 in Tommelein, I.D. (ed). Expert Systems for
    Civil Engineers: Integrated and Distributed Systems.
    ASCE
    Monograph Series, ASCE, New York, NY,
    1-39.

  • Birmingham,
    W.P. and Tommelein, I.D. (1992). “Towards a Domain Independent
    Synthesis System.” Chapter 3 in Green, M. (editor): Knowledge
    Aided Design.
    Academic Press, London.,
    47-73.

  • Tommelein, I.D. (1992). “Constructing Site Layouts using
    Blackboard Reasoning with Layered Knowledge.” Chapter 10 in Allen, R.
    (editor): Expert Systems for Civil Engineers: Knowledge
    Representation.
    ASCE Monograph Series, ASCE, New York,
    NY,
    214-258.

Books and CDs

  • Tommelein, I.D. and Pasquire, C. (editors)(2012).
    Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC-20).
    July, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

  • National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2009). Construction Research at NIOSH. Committee to Review the NIOSH Construction Research Program. Rpt. No. 8, Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Washington , D.C. : The National Academies Press.

  • Tommelein, I.D. (editor)(2005). Proceedings for the Construction Research Congress 2005, held 5-7 April 2005 in San Diego, CA, CD ROM distributed by ASCE, Reston, VA.

  • Tommelein, I.D. (editor)(2002).
    Proceedings for the 3rd International Conference on Concurrent Engineering in Construction – CEC02, held 1-3 July 2002, University of California at Berkeley, California, USA, 206 pp.

  • Tommelein, I.D. (editor)(1999).
    Proc. Seventh Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC-7),
    26-28 July, held at U.C. Berkeley, CA, USA, published by Lean Construction Institute, Ketchum, ID, 444 pp., ISBN-1-929465-01-7

  • Tommelein, I.D. (editor)(1996). Expert Systems for Civil Engineers: Integration Issues. ASCE Monograph Series, Technical Council on Computer Practices, ASCE, New York, NY, 248 pp.

  • Tommelein, A. and Tommelein, I.D. (editors)(1995).
    Dictionnaire Biographique illustre des Artistes en Belgique depuis 1830.
    In French, title in English: Illustrated Biographical Dictionary of Artists in Belgium since 1830, Publisher: ARTO, Brussels, Belgium, 448 pp.

Theses
and Dissertation

  • Tommelein, I.D. (1989). “
    SightPlan: An Expert System that Models and Augments Human
    Decision-Making for Designing Construction Site Layouts.

    Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford
    University, Stanford, CA, August, 203 pp.; hard copy available from
    University Microfilms.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1989). Comparing Design
    Strategies of Agents with Limited Resources.
    M.S. A.I.
    Thesis, Department of Computer Science, Stanford
    University,
    Stanford,
    CA,
    unpublished, June.
  • Tommelein, I.D. (1984). Aanwending
    van Lichtgewicht Komposieten in Membraan Strukturen.

    In Dutch, title in English: Application of Light-weight Composites in
    Membrane Structures. Engineer’s Thesis, Free University Brussels (V.U.B.), Brussels,
    Belgium.

Doctoral Dissertations Supervised

  1. Alves, Thais da Costa Lago (2005).

    Buffering Practices in HVAC Ductwork Supply Chains.
    (.pdf file).
    Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
    University of California,
    Berkeley,
    Fall.

  2. Arroyo, Paz (2014).

    Exploring Decision-making Methods for Sustainable Design in Commercial Buildings.
    (.pdf file).
    Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
    Universityof California,
    Berkeley,
    Spring.

  3. Cho,
    Seong Kyun (2011). The Relation between Lean Construction and
    Performance in the Korean Construction Industry.
    Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Spring, 211 pages. (co-adviser with Prof. Glenn Ballard)

  4. Choo,
    Hyun Jeong (James)(2003). “Distributed
    Planning and Coordination to Support Lean Construction

    (.pdf file). Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Spring, 185 pages.

  5. Dzeng,
    Ren-Jye (1995). “CasePlan:
    A Case-Based Planner and Scheduler for Construction Using Product
    Modeling
    (abstract). Ph.D. Dissertation,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
    MI,
    September, 300 pp. (also Report No. UMCEE 95-22).

  6. Elfving,
    Jan Alarik (2003). “Exploration
    of Opportunities to Reduce Lead Times for Engineered-to-Order Products

    (.pdf file). Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Fall, 322 pages.

  7. Feng, Peter Pei-Yin (2009)

    Causes
    and Effects of Rework on the Delivery of Healthcare Facilities in
    California
    (.pdf
    file). Ph.D. Dissertation,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., University of California, Berkeley,
    Spring, 340 pp.

  8. Gil, Nuno Antonio Pires de Almeida Pinho
    (2001). “Product-Process
    Development Simulation to Support Specialty Contractor Involvement in
    Design
    (.pdf
    file). Ph.D. Dissertation,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Fall, 220 pp.

  9. Hamzeh, Farook (2009). Improving Construction Workflow – The Role of Production Planning and Control. Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., University of California, Berkeley, Summer, 273 pp.

  10. Lee, Hyun Woo (Chris)(2012). Application of Target Value Design to Energy Efficiency Investments (.pdf file). Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., University of California, Berkeley, Spring, 163 pp.

  11. Milberg, Colin Thomas
    (2006). Application
    of Tolerance Management to Civil Systems
    (.pdf file). Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Summer, 377 pp.

  12. Nguyen, Hung (2010).
    Process-Based Cost Modeling to Support Target Value Design

    (.pdf file). Ph.D.
    Diss., Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Spring, xxx pp.

  13. Odeh,
    Abdalla M. (1992). “CIPROS:
    Knowledge-based Construction Integrated Project and Process Planning
    Simulation System
    (abstract). Ph.D. Diss., Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg., Univ.
    of Michigan,
    Ann
    Arbor, MI,
    co-advisor with R.I. Carr.

  14. Parrish, Kristen
    Danielle (2009). “Applying
    a Set-based Design Approach to Reinforcing Steel Design

    (.pdf file). Ph.D. Diss.,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., University of California, Berkeley,
    Spring, 341 pp.

  15. Rybkowski, Zofia
    Kristina (2009). Application of root cause analysis and
    target value design to evidence-based design in the capital planning of
    healthcare facilities.
    Ph.D. Diss.,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Summer, 300 pp. (co-adviser with Prof. Glenn Ballard)

  16. Tsao, Cynthia C.Y.
    (2005). “Use
    of Work Structuring to Increase Performance of Project-based Production
    Systems
    (.pdf
    file). Ph.D. Diss.,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Fall.

  17. Tuholski,
    Stanislaus John (2008). “Transformation,
    Flow, and Value Constellations in AEC Projects

    (.pdf file). Ph.D. Diss., Dept. of Civil & Envir. Engrg.,
    University
    of California,
    Berkeley,
    Fall, 276 pp.

  18. Zouein, Pierrette Pierre (1995).
    MoveSchedule:
    A Planning Tool for Scheduling Space Use on Construction Sites

    (abstract). Ph.D. Diss.,
    Dept. of Civil & Envir.
    Engrg., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
    MI,
    December, 308 pp.


Undergraduate and Master’s Theses Supervised

  • Furtmeier, Fabian (2010).
    Complexity in Lean Design in the AEC Industry.
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis (Diplomarbeit),
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Messrs. Martin Graebsch and Matthias Kreimeier and Prof. Udo Lindemann at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM), Institut fur Productentwicklung (Technical University Munich, Institute for Product Development), Munich, Germany.
  • Gasztych, Nicolas (2012).
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis. Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)(Free University of Brussels), Brussels, Belgium.
  • Hicketier, Gernot (XXXX). PhD Student,
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Prossor Fritz Gehbauer at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.
  • Krinner, Michael (2011).
    Managing Complexity in Lean Construction Design: Using the MDM Methodology to Create Organizational Modularity.
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis (Diplomarbeit),
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Mr. Fatos Elezi and Prof. Udo Lindemann at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM), Institut fur Productentwicklung (Technical University Munich, Institute for Product Development), Munich, Germany.
  • Schmidt, Michael (2013-14).
    Supporting Organizational Design Towards Lean with the Viable Systems Model.
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis (Diplomarbeit),
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Mr. Fatos Elezi and Prof. Udo Lindemann at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM), Institut fur Productentwicklung (Technical University Munich, Institute for Product Development), Munich, Germany.
  • Skhmot, Nawras (2013).
    Lean Design Management in Aker Solutions Concept Studies: Set-Based Design, Last Responsible Moment, Target Value Design, and Choosing by Advantages.
    Master’s Thesis. Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Mr. Frode Drevland at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Institutt for Bygg, Anlegg og Transport (NTNU, Institute for Construction, Development and Transport), Trondheim, Norway
  • Spoerl, Sebastian (2014-15).
    Built-in Quality.
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis (Diplomarbeit),
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Mr. Fatos Elezi and Prof. Udo Lindemann at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM), Institut fur Productentwicklung (Technical University Munich, Institute for Product Development), Munich, Germany.
  • Steinhaeusser, Tobias (2013).
    Management Cybernetics as a Theoretical Background for Lean Thinking.
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis (Diplomarbeit),
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Mr. Fatos Elezi and Prof. Udo Lindemann at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM), Institut fur Productentwicklung (Technical University Munich, Institute for Product Development), Munich, Germany.
  • Tjell, Janni (2010).
    Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Design Detailing with Focus on Interior Wall Systems.
    Master’s Thesis.
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Associate professor Niclas Andersen from the Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU). For this outstanding work, Ms. Tjell received the Lean Construction-DK’s Study Award, which is given for the best Master’s thesis from a technical school or a university in Denmark.
  • Wilberg, Julian (2014-15).
    Managing Engineering Change using the Viable Systems Model (tentative title>
    Master’s of Engineering Thesis (Diplomarbeit),
    Prof. I.D. Tommelein supervised this work jointly with Mr. Fatos Elezi and Prof. Udo Lindemann at the Technische Universitat Munchen (TUM), Institut fur Productentwicklung (Technical University Munich, Institute for Product Development), Munich, Germany.

Prof. Iris D. Tommelein|
Project Production Systems Laboratory – P2SL|
E&PM Program |
CEE Department |
UC Berkeley |

Iris D. Tommelein’s Publications / IDT / 10 October 2015